Next Generation 2-Stroke Engine
Developed by Orbital leading international developer of engine technologies direct in cylinder fuel injection & lean bum system for enhanced fuel economy & lower emission. This technology exceeds the EP A 2006 emission standards & offers 40% fuel efficiency over conventional two stroke. Different automotive companies have licensed & experimented with Orbital clean burning two-stroke engine & auto major like Peugot, Aprila & other are directly installing these on their new models. It may not take long before this technology reaches India as Bajaj auto already has a tie-up with Orbital. This technology is not only restricted to two wheeler but Ford, BMW and other four wheeler auto majors have used this technology to manufacture cars powered with ASDI. Two stroke engine which much better performance than an equivalent four stroke engine.
Principle Of (A R C) : -
When fuel is brought to the right pressure & temperature; molecule breaks down into what are known as active radical molecules. These are highly unstable chemical compounds. Formed as an intermediate step in the actual combustion reaction. When hot exhaust gases remains in the cylinder the small percentage of active radical molecules combines with the incoming fuel charge & begins to auto ignite at a lower temperature than a pure petrol/air mixture.
1. Fresh fuel (white) enters the combustion chamber, pushing the exhaust (gray) out the open exhaust valve in opposite side of the cylinder.
2. The incoming fuel mixes with the exhaust & some pockets of fuel are isolated within the exhaust. The exhaust valve closes & the compression of the mixture is increased as the piston travels upwards.
3. The fuel/exhaust mixture is compressed & auto ignites as the piston reaches the top· of its stroke. This bums all the fuel, and reduces the emission of unbent hydrocarbons into the environment. At small throttle openings, a conventional two stroke will start a repeating pattern of misfiring, which allows a large amount of unbent gas and oil to be expelled directly into the atmosphere. At these low engine speed, the mixture not ignite by the spark is the expelled directly into the exhaust system. Each time this misfiring occurs, the amount of fuel remaining in the cylinder increase, until it is great enough to be ignited by the spark. But the EXP-2 ignites the entire mixture without the use of spark at low & medium loads and is able to bum off and oil in the cylinder in every cycle, eliminating the possibility of misfire and reducing hydrocarbon emissions. This 400-cc single cylinder not only uses the ASDI and active radial combustion but a trapping valve too. This is a new technology ion the design of exhaust valve for two-stroke engine
Principal Of ASDI: -
Compressed air is used to assist the atomization of fuel injected directly into the combustion chamber, (typically after the exhaust port has closed) facilitating very fine control of air-fuel gradient around the spark plug. In addition, the air utilizes to scavenge and clean out the cylinder of bum gases. The Honda EXP-2& Bimota 500V uses the same technology. But it was Orbital modified Honda NSR- 125 that sparked this new trend. A new injection system and a compressor to supply the air for injection were the only equipment fitted. All the other parts were left in tact.
One of the central components of the Orbital combustion process is the direct injector. This injector can deliver extremely small droplets & control spray geometry directly in cylinder. The compressor pumps in 5.5 bar of air to affect the injection and atomization fuel at pressure, normal fuel pump can use.
The fuel is injected into the cylinder by a compressed air assisted direct injector. After the fuel catches the fire and power stroke is performed, the exhaust gases are scavenged out using air only & sensor fitted make sure that no unbunrt fuel is driven out. The fuel injection and scavenging is controlled by an Electronic Control Unit (ECU) in response ·to engine speed and rider demand. With the modified NSR-125 performing at par & consuming less fuel. Orbital demonstrated that fuel system alone; independent of any optimization of the combustion chamber can achieve the emission standard of the future. The Honda on its EXP-2 model achieved an optimization of the combustion process that has never happened till date in petrol engine.
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