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Biodiesel


Published on Jan 10, 2016

Abstract

Biodiesel is the name of a clean burning methanol (mono-alkyl) ester- or ethanol ester based fuel made from vegetable or animal fats. Biodiesel can be blended with petro- diesel in any relation. It can be used in diesel engines without modification. Biodiesel is simple to use, biodegradable, nontoxic, and essentially free of sulphur and aromatics.

Overview

The use of biodiesel in a conventional diesel engine results in substantial reduction of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate matter. The exhaust emissions of sulfur oxides and sulfates (major components of acid rain) from biodiesel are essentially smaller compared to petrodiesel. Scientific research confirms that biodiesel exhaust has a less harmful impact on human health than petroleum diesel fuel.

Biodiesel emissions have decreased levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitrited PAH compounds which have been identified as potential cancer causing compounds. In recent testing, PAH compounds were reduced by 75% to 85%, with the exception of benzoanthracene, which was reduced by roughly 50%. Targeted nPAH compounds were also reduced dramatically by using biodiesel fuel, with 2-nitrofluorene and 1-nitropyrene reduced by 90%, and the rest of the nPAH compounds reduced to only trace levels.

Introduction

Biodiesel can be operated in any diesel engine with little or no impact to the fuel system. Biodiesel has a solvent effect which may release deposits accumulated on tank walls and pipes from previous diesel fuel storage. The release of deposits may clog filters. Biodiesel can be used as a pure fuel or blended with petroleum in any ratio.

The politics of car producers are different, e.g., all production models since production year 1996 are fully equipped and rated for biodiesel use. Mercedes Benz delivers biodiesel equipped cars upon request. For other cars, please check with the manufacturer.Biodiesel can be used instead of mineral diesel in any car or truck. Only the compatibility of fuel pumps and seals has to be ensured.

Due to high viscosity of rapeseed oil it must be heated to 75 °C in order to be compBatible with standard injection pumps.Biodiesel has a higher cetane number than diesel fuel. In over 15 million miles of in-field demonstrations, biodiesel showed similar fuel consumption, horsepower, torque and haulage rates as conventional diesel fuel.

TRANS - ESTERIFICATION PROCESS

The trans-etherification process is carried out in order to reduce the viscosity of the oil by removing the fatty acid present in it.100ml mixture of NAOH and methanol is take in a burette and added to the raw jatropha oil with a constant interval of 30min. during addition of the mixture the temperature should be maintained between 50°C - 60°C. If the temperature exceeds beyond this limit the oil could catch fire since methanol ignites at very low temperature.

Biodiesel

Trans-Esterification Process

When all the mixture of methanol and NAOH is added to the raw jatropha oil it is allowed to settle in the container for 10hrs. After this there will clear separation on glycerol and the ester which is the required oil (Biodiesel)

Electrical Centrifuge for Separating Oil and Glycerol

The final test which proves that the oil is undergone good Trans - esterification is by its golden colour formation and the smell which should not have any occurrence of the alcohol used in process. The picture below shows the difference between raw jatropha oil and trans- esterified oil.

FABRICATION OF EGR

External EGR, using piping to route the exhaust gas to the intake system where it is inducted into the succeeding cycles, has emerged as the preferred current approach. This methodology was followed in our project.

The engine exhaust and intake manifold was modified so as to enhance the EGR set. The constraints involved in the fabrication of EGR are as follows:

• Effective cooling has to be enforced for good performance of EGR since gas at 500-600°C can’t be let into engine.

• Effective throttling has to be maintained so as to allow required gas inside the cylinder.

The exhaust has to be modified and the following condition has to be acquired, so as to use the AVL 437C Smoke meter.

o The temperature at the position of measurement should be maintained between 200 - 250°C

o The pressure at the position of measurement should be maintained between 60-75mm of manometer.

o Exhaust gas should be taken at an angle of 135° so as to have accurate readings.

TEST PROCEDURE:

1. The room temperature was noted down first.

2. Required quantities of blends were prepared according to their ratios by volume.

3. The fuel in the fuel tank, the supply of cooling water, level of lubricant in the sump as indicated by the dipstick and no load on the engine were checked before starting the engine.

4. The engine was started and allowed to run at no load for about 10 minutes to warm up and attain steady state. The speed of the engine was measured using a tachometer and it was adjusted to the rated speed of 1500 rpm by adjusting the governor connected to the fuel pump.

5. The fuel was then supplied from the burette by opening the metering valve. By noting the change in level of fuel in the burette, the time taken for 10cc of fuel consumption was noted using a stop watch.

6. The desired cooling water flow rate was obtained by adjusting the valve and was kept constant throughout the experiment.

7. The inlet and outlet temperatures of the cooling water are noted. The temperature of the exhaust gas was noted.

8. The full load of the engine was distributing equally so as to run at least five trials during the test from zero load (0 amps) to full load (12 amps). The set up readings were taken and tabulated.

9. The emissions are measured using the Flue gas analyzer, AVL 437C Smoke meter for all the combinations of biodiesel with HSD.

10. The manometer readings are also noted.

11. All the above readings were taken for various loads with applying and without applying EGR.

Electrical loading arrangement was used for loading the engine. All parameters relating to the engine performance were observed from the reading. Such parameter as,

1. Brake power

2. Fuel consumption rate, Specific fuel consumption

3. Fuel power

4. Brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal efficiency

5. Brake and indicated mean effective pressure.

After, the experimental part of the project was completed, the calculations were carried out and various graphs were drawn so as to discuss and arrive at specified result. From the analysis of graphs the conclusion were made.













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