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Engineering Projects

Motion Detection Alarm and Security System

Published on Nov 30, 2023


The need for an effective and reliable intrusion detection with an alarm system have become vital necessity because of the frequent and rampant cases of burglary. Attack on homes offices, factories, banks etc. is on the increase. With the advancement in technology, motion can be detected by measuring change in speed or vector of an object in the field of view. This can be achieved either by mechanical devices that physically interact with the field or by electronic device that quantifies and measures changes in the given environment. The motion detector is not only used as intruder alarm but also used in many applications like home automation system, energy efficiency system, etc. This project is built using an embedded microcontroller system capable of detecting motion of an intruder in a restricted area and then triggering an alarm system, motion detectorsystem, however passive infrared sensor detected themotion of the person using the person body heat.The passive infrared (PIR) sensor which is the motion detector used in this project is attached toa microcontroller which activates the alarm system and any other attached output device to notify thehouse owner.The initial testing of the design shows that it worked as expected.


It must take into account the actions of people attempting to trespass or cause destruction. Security is the degree of protection against danger, loss and criminals. Throughout history, human have sought to protect their life, property and professions.The busy lifestyle of people is leading to the necessity of controlling the devices at home remotely and increasing the necessity of keeping surveillance over their home. Now when everything is available to us we can now design something that provides us complete security. The very basic of this began with the simple alarm system which include notifying suspicious activities at a very low cost [1] .The need for security system have rapidly grown from being specialized for high – risk areas such as banks ,companies ,governmental institutions),to be available and demanded rapidly by the average public. Some of the common characteristics of motion detection alarm and security system as follow 24 hours monitoring, difficult to hack, Ability to control doors and motion sensor.

The motion sensor used in this work is the pyroelectric device that detects motion by measuring changes in the infrared levels emitted by surrounding objects. This motion can be detected by checking for a high signal on a single I/O pin. Its special features include single bit output small size which makes it easy to conceal, compatible with all parallax embedded microcontroller 3.3V& 5V and operation and operation with<100µA current draw. A typical motion detection alarm and security system should consist of a controlpanel, Alarm/siren, Window and door sensor plus at least one motion detector. Inaddition, some motion detection alarm and security system can incorporate home automation, smoke detectors and glass break detector. The main objective of this research work is to design a system that can sense human movement, buzzes an alarm along with this captures an image of the intruder which is further compared with the image of owner. In this research work, will designed a well-organized and intelligent intruder motion detector alarm and security that can sensed the presence of humanly bodies and notifies this to the owners just immediately. This system provides a very cost effective security system that can be placed anywhere in the house with less maintenance cost.

Hardware Design Considerations

This section describes briefly the different hardware used in the design as well as the software algorithm implemented in the embedded microcontroller unit.Fig. 1 shows a pictorial description of the proposed motion detection alarm and security system. The core of the system is an advanced microprocessor unit for the control of the entire system. However,the unit is equipped with a port for control of an alarm system which is activated in the case of security violation detected by any of the input devices.

burglar alarm

Microcontroller and Sensor Unit Design

Fig. 2 shows the circuit diagram of the entire burglar alarm system with microcontroller IC.The central controller is the microchip PIC18F2423. The design include an ICSP inputs for the programming of the microcontroller which is a connector attached to RB6, RB7 and the MCLR pin 1 of the microcontroller unit.The microcontroller also accepts input from switch sensors which can be placed on the hinges of doors or any hidden place for the purpose of activation of the device.Also included in the design is the PIR connector input for the motion sensor. The microcontroller is set to operate at 4MHZ by the crystal oscillator and the paired 22pF capacitors.The PORTC0 of the microcontroller is configured to control a relay attached to the alarm system.The system also contains 5 LED for visual display of actions performed by the system .The LEDs are powered from PORTB of the microcontroller system. The entire system receives its power from a 5V regulator circuit built with a LM7805 IC and filter capacitors .The circuit was implemented into a double sided printed circuit board with the component connections on top side.

System Design and Implementation

This section gives a details description and experimental procedure used in this project. The project was designed to provide a close circuit security using commercially available PIR sensors and microcontroller for device control. The highlights of the system are long range pickup and robust coordinating software with a data base containing information about the user (client) setting. The design was in three main phase: The sensitivity, central processing and action. The study also utilized developmental design to observe the functionality of the device. Anti –theft device detected motion from a moving object for those with body temperature like human being and animal [6]. The processors will receive inputs from a switch which may be hinged to a door or any hidden place to activate the alarm system. Light emitting diode was used as an indicator in the design. It is abasic pn-junction diode which emits light when activated.The design contains five diodes as an indicator.


Motion sensor or detectors are widely used in security system. It contains a motion sensor either integrated with or connected to other devices that alert the user of pre-sense of motion. It typically positioned near exterior doorways or windows of building to monitor the area around it. Motion sensor offers for protection and security the average homeowner as well as commercial organisations. The motion sensor used for this work is the pyroelectric Infrared PIR Motion Sensor Detector Module shown in Fig. 3. The device contains a special filter called a Fresnel lens, which focuses the infrared signal onto the element.


In this design the PIC18F2423 microcontroller was used. The PIC18F2423 is a high-performance enhanced flash ,microcontroller from microchip with nano watt technology .This microcontroller offers the advantages of all PIC18 microcontrollers- namely, high computational performance at an economical price with the addition of high-endurance, Enhanced flash program memory. In addition to these features, the PIC18F2423 introduces design enhancements that make these microcontrollers a logical choice for many high – performances, power sensitive applications. The devices incorporate a fully featured serial Bus communications module that is compliant with the RS232 specification. The module support both low-speed and full-speed synchronous and data transfer types. It also incorporates its own on-chip transceiver and 3.3V regulator and supports the use of external transceivers and voltage regulators .Figure 4.shows pin diagram of the DIL package and the block diagram of the block diagram of the PIC18F2423 family respectively, it consist of a 32Kbytes flash program memory, 10 channel 12bits A/D channels, 3 bi-directional ports, one standard capture compare port (CCP) and an enhanced capture port (ECCP).



Electronic sirens incorporate circuits such as oscillator, modulators, and amplifiers to synthesize a selected siren tone which is played through external speakers. For this project, an alarm siren Horn Buzzer Speaker was chosen .Figure 5shows a typical siren speaker system. The device is made of fireproof ABS material and operates at a rated voltage: DC 12V power with an output of 15W. The sound Pressure level is 110dB with a time delay of 1s

Software Design Consideration

The software design for this project was implemented using a CCS C compiler for PIC microchip. This compiler consists of an optimized C compiler program as well as improved functions for many microcontroller operations. The flow chart on Figure 6 shows the implantation of the algorithm used in the programming of the microcontroller. The program on starting initializes the microcontroller unit on boot up. The controller routinely circles round the sensors polling the inputs for a brake in. If either motion or a brake in switch is detected this initiates an action for the triggering or activating the alarm system. At start up the system initializes and then check for activation of the system by the user. If this switch is set on the system switches to the security mode. First it wait for a time delay of 60 seconds to allow the house owner to leave before the security mode is activated. At this point the system is armed and then continues to sample the output of the motion sensor continuously. Itremains in this state as long as no motion is detected.When a motion is detected the motion sensor sends an interrupt via the interrupt request of the microcontroller on PORTB0.This information is processed , then the alarm system is activated .The alarm remains on until the house owner switches it off through the activation switch.

Motion Detection

Constructed Device

The physical implementation of the design was carried out on the manufactured PCB boards using mainly surface mounted components. The component was then soldered into the respective component slots using a 30W soldering iron [15]. Figure 10 shows the completed project with the PIR motion and siren speaker system in place.

Motion Detection


Initial testing of the board was carried out using continuity meter to ensure all short circuit fault are properly cleared. The sensory circuitry was tested to ascertain the level of sensitivity as expected. In the connection each component on the PCB was then tested. The implemented design was initially tested on an open area after construction and the system performed as expected. The devicewas further install in a household to determine how effective the device can detects an intruder. The test result shows that both the braking switches attached to the door hinges and the motion sensors perform adequately as expected.


Initial testing of the board was carried out using continuity meter to ensure all short circuit fault are properly cleared. The sensory circuitry was tested to ascertain the level of sensitivity as expected. In the connection each component on the PCB was then tested. The implemented design was initially tested on an open area after construction and the system performed as expected. The devicewas further install in a household to determine how effective the device can detects an intruder. The test result shows that both the braking switches attached to the door hinges and the motion sensors perform adequately as expected.

The future implementations of the project are great considering the amount of time and resources it saves. This system can be used as a reference or as a base for realizing a scheme to be implemented in other project of greater level including audio –visual cameral by sending the captured image to an e-mail instantly


[1] B.P.Urbana , and G.G.Modi, “ Domestic Intruder”, System .Indian Journal of Computer and Engineering., Vol.2, PP.506-515, Sept.2011.

[2] A. Upasana , B.Manisha,, G. Mohini,, and K .Pradnya,” Real Time Security Using Human Motion Detection,” International Journal of Computer Science and Mobile Computing. ,Vol. 4,PP 245-250, Nov. 2015

[3] P.B. Patel,V.M Choksi, S.J adhav, and M.B Potdar,” Smart Motion Detection Using Raspberry Pi” .International Journal of Applied Information Systems. ,Vol. 10, PP37-40, Feb.2016

[4] M.J Charadva,, R. V Sejpal , and N .P Sarwade,“of Motion Detection Method for Smart HomeSystem”. International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering.,Vol. 1, PP. 148-151, June.2014

Project Done By Akin James Akinbobola, Shadrack Alaba Egbuwalo