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Voice Over Internet Protocol

Published on Apr 02, 2024


Using an ordinary phone for most people is a common daily occurrence as is listening to your favorite CD containing the digitally recorded music. It is only a small extension to these technologies in having your voice transmitted in data packets.

The transmission of voice in the phone network was done originally using an analog signal but this has been replaced in much of the world by digital networks. Although many of our phones are still analog, the network that carries that voice has become digital.

In todays phone networks, the analog voice going into our analog phones is digitized as it enters the phone network. This digitization process, shown in Figure 1 below, records a sample of the loudness (voltage) of the signal at fixed intervals of time. These digital voice samples travel through the network one byte at a time.

At the destination phone line, the byte is put into a device that takes the voltage number and produces that voltage for the destination phone. Since the output signal is the same as the input signal, we can understand what was originally spoken.

The evolution of that technology is to take numbers that represent the voltage and group them together in a data packet similar to the way computers send and receive information to the Internet. Voice over IP is the technology of taking units of sampled speech data .

So at its most basic level, the concept of VoIP is straightforward. The complexity of VoIP comes in the many ways to represent the data, setting up the connection between the initiator of the call and the receiver of the call, and the types of networks that carry the call.

Using data packets to carry voice is not just done using IP packets. Although it won't be discussed, there is also voice over Frame Relay (VoFR) and Voice over ATM (VoATM) technologies. Many of the issues VoIP being discussed also apply to the other packetized voice technologies.

The increasing multimedia contents in Internet have reduced drastically the objections to putting voice on data networks. Basically, the Internet objections to putting voice on data networks. Basically, the Internet Telephony is to transmit multimedia information in discrete packets like voice or video over Internet or any other IP-based Local Area Network (LAN) or Wide Area Network (WAN).

The commercial Voice Over IP (Internet Protocol) was introduced in early 1995 when VocalTec introduced its Internet telephone software. Because the technologies and the market have gradually reached their maturity, many industry leading companies have developed their products for Voice Over IP applications since 1995 VoIP, or "Voice over Internet Protocol" refers to sending voice and fax phone calls over data networks, particularly the Internet. This technology offers cost savings by making more efficient use of the existing network.

Traditionally, voice and data were carried over separate networks optimized to suit the differing characteristics of voice and data traffic. With advances in technology, it is now possible to carry voice and data over the same networks whilst still catering for the different characteristics required by voice and data. Voice-over-Internet-Protocol (VOIP) is an emerging technology that allows telephone calls or faxes to be transported over an IP data network.

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