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Study of Surface Water and Ground Water and its Treatment Using Biocoagulants

Published on Nov 30, 2023


Lakes in urban expanses are ecologically very important. Those inland water bodies play a major role in sustainable urban development. As a result of the swelling land use and effluent disposal from domestic and industrial activities, water bodies in the urban regions have been suffering in recent times. The present study aims in understanding the physical, chemical and biological conditions of the Kattigenahalli Lake. This Lake is situated in Kattigenahalli, Yelahanka. This is not being used by the residents due to unknown reasons.

This project is based on treating Lake water using organic purification unit which consists of three bio coagulants, which are Moringa oleifera, Tamarind seeds and activated charcoal using rice husk which are locally available. Studies conclusively demonstrate that bio coagulants are as efficient alum in purifying water at low cost and also have antimicrobial properties. These werelocally available natural coagulants in this study to reduce turbidity and other parameters.

The tests were carried out, using Kattigenahalli Lake water with conventional jar test apparatus and samples were sent to laboratory for further test. The percentage reduction in turbidity was found to be 24.07%, 65.82%, 78.14% respectively. Among the three, activated charcoal was found to be the best in removing turbidity as it was efficient in removing 78.14% of turbidity. The treatment unit was efficient in removing total coliforms and fluoride content too. The laboratory results of bore well samples showed that it is absolutely safe and potable and availability of water from bore wells are also quite sufficient for taking care of water requirements of this area.


1. To characterise the physical, chemical and biological parameters of the Lake water in Kattigenahalli Lake and from bore well samples around the lake.

2. Based on the analysis of water, it is purified using organic treatment unit which consists of various bio coagulants.

3. To study the properties of Moringa oleifera seeds, Tamarind seeds and activated charcoal using rice husk in treating Lake water.

4. This study aims in finding remedial solutions for the Kattigenahalli Lake and making it into beneficial use.


1. Collection of samples: Samples are to be collected from various pointsin andaround the lake.

2. Preservation of the samples: The samples collected are to be preserved at optimum temperature of about 4C.

3. Analysis: The samples collected are to be analysed to find out the physical, chemical and biological contents, based on the analysis the samples are treated by using organic methods as suggested below,

4. Moringa oleifera: Ripened MO is taken and its seeds are to collected, dried in sunlight. The dried seeds are powdered finely and sieved by using a 150 micron sieve. The seed powder passing through the 150 micron sieve is collected and thus the obtained seed powder is taken for further analysis.

5. Tamarind seed powder: Tamarind seed used in this study was collected from the kitchen as waste material. It was soaked in water for an hour to remove the adhering pulp, washed well with tap water. The seeds are first crushed in the mortar and pestle to remove the outer cover as much as possible and the cotyledons were powdered finely. The powdered material is taken for further analysis..

6. Preparation of Rice Husk: Rice husk was obtained from a local rice mill. In the first step, 25 grams of rice husk was heated gradually at a temperature of about 300 deg C for fifteen minutes and is then activated in a muffle furnace at 105 deg C for about 15 minutes. The product was cooled giving a desired pure adsorbent.

7. Jar test: The analysis of optimum dosage of coagulant is to be done using jar test. Jar test is to be conducted with varying quantities of MO powder, tamarind seeds powder and activated charcoal using rice husk.

8. Analysis of treated samples: After jar test the samples needs to be again analysed to find the pH, turbidity, DO,BOD, chloride content, fluoride content, iron, copper etc., to find the change in the parameter.

9. Comparison of results before and after treatment: Comparisons are made by analysing the test results obtained after the completion of test to that of the initial condition.


1. The optimum dosage of Moringa Oleifera seed powder for treating lake water is 2g/L as it has brought a reduction of turbidity of 24.07%.

2. The optimum dosage of Tamarind seed powder for treating lake water is 1g/L as it has brought a reduction of turbidity of 65.82%.

3. The optimum dosage of activated Charcoal of rice husk powder is 3.5g/l as it has brought a reduction of turbidity 78.14%.

4. The best bio coagulant among MOP, TP and RHAC is RHAC as the percentage reduction in turbidity using this bio-coagulant was 78.14%.

5. All the three bio coagulant were used one after the other in the order of Tamarind seed powder, MO seed powder & activated charcoal using rice husk respectively. The water collected after the entire treatment is seed to laboratory for analysis. The results obtained had shown a decrease in Total Coliform and Fluoride content.

6. But the sample had shown rise in BOD & total nitrogen and phosphate content. The results might have occurred owing the organic nature of the bio coagulant.

7. Earlier studies had shown that bio coagulant like MO will work well when the initial turbidity of the water sample is more and in this work also it was evident that when initial turbidity of sample was more, effectiveness of MOP was comparatively higher.

8. Bore well samples from nearby points of Kattigenahalli Lake was also studied. The analysis showed that all parameters of bore well water were well within the limits prescribed by KSPCB standards. Therefore groundwater condition is supposed to be good and availability of water from bore wells are also quite sufficient for taking care of water requirements of this area.

9. From this study, it can be concluded that the bio coagulants selected for this study are quite efficient in treatment of lake water. Even though some of the results were not very encouraging, the usage of these bio coagulants can improve the quality of lake water, so that people around the lake can use it for their day to day activities.


1. MOP extracts in the form of solution and activated charcoal can be used in the treatment of lake water.

2. TP used in this study was mainly the powder of cotyledons. But it is seen that powder with the outer covering showed better result in reducing turbidity though the colour was increased.

3. RHAC extracts in the form of solution and powder can be used in treatment of lake water.

4. In the present study the lake water was treated with bio coagulants subsequently one after the other. Further studies can be made by mixing all the coagulants in the ratio of 1:2:3.5 g/L and then using it for the treatment.

5. Anti-microbial and anti-bacterial property of MO seeds needs to be further studied and it is yet to be analyzed which microbial group are mostly affected by MO seeds.
6. It is seen that fluoride content has decreased due to the presence of tamarind seeds further studies can be made using tamarind pulp.

Project Done By Ms. Swati Shasi, Mr. Shakthivel P, Mr. Shivakumar .B. S, Mr. Sri Sanjith A