Rate of Fermentation of Wheat Flour
Published on Sep 03, 2020
To compare the rate of fermentation of givensample of wheat flour gram flour,rice flour and potato using yeast
The purpose of the experiment is – to compare the rate of fermentation ofthe given samples of wheat flour,gram flour, rice flour and potatoes.I became interested in this idea when i saw some experiments on fermentation and wanted to find out some scientific facts about fermentation.The primary benefit of fermentation is the conversion of sugars and other carbohydrates,e.g., converting juice into wine, grains into beer, carbohydrates into carbon dioxide to leaven bread, and sugars in vegetables into preservative organic acids.
Fermentation is a metabolic process serving for some microorganisms to get energy through digestion of simple fermentable sugars, mostly glucose and fructose. In bakery fermentation, the production of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is required as it serves for fluffing up the dough. The principle of rheological apparatus, used for the evaluation of fermented dough properties during its maturation, is the measurement of gaseous volume or pressure produced. Fermentograph SJA (Sweden) or advanced type Rheofermentometer (Chopin, France) can describe this dough behaviour. The purpose of fermentation is to bring dough to the optimum condition for baking.
Fermentation typically is the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts, bacteria, or a combination thereof, under anaerobic conditions. A more restricted definition of fermentation is the chemical conversion ofsugars into ethanol. The science offermentation is known as zymology.Fermentation usually implies that the action ofmicroorganisms is desirable, and the process isused to produce alcoholic beverages such aswine, beer, and cider. Fermentation is alsoemployed in preservation techniques to createlactic acid in sour foods such as sauerkraut,dry sausages, kimchi and yoghurt, or vinegar for use in pickling foods.
Wheat flour,gram flour,rice flour and potatoes contains starch as the major constituent.Starch present in these food materials is first brought into solution.in the presence of enzyme diastase,starch undergo fermentation to give maltose. Starch gives blue-violet colour with iodine whereas product of fermentation starch donot give any characteristic colour. When the fermentation is complete the reaction mixture stops giving blue-violet colour with iodine solution. By comparing the time required for completion of fermentation of equal amounts of different substances containing starch the rates of fermentation can be compared.The enzyme diastase is obtained by germination of moist barley seeds in dark at 15 degree celsius.When the germination is complete the temperature is raised to 60 degree celsius to stop further growth.The seeds are crushed into water and filtered.The filtrate contains enzyme diastase and is called malt extract.
• # Take 5 gms of wheat flour in 100 ml conical flask and add 30 ml of distilled water.
• # Boil the contents of the flask for about 5 minutes
• # Filter the above contents after cooloing,the filtrate obtained is wheat flour extract.
• # To the wheat flour extract. taken in a conical flask. Add 5 ml of 1% aq. NaCl solution.
• # Keep this flask in a water bath maintained at a temperature of 50-60 degree celsius.Add 2 ml of malt extract.
• # After 2 minutes take 2 drops of the reaction mixture and add to diluted iodine solution.
• # Repeat step 6 after every 2 minutes.When no bluish colour is produced the fermentation is complete.
• # Record the total time taken for completion of fermentation.
• # Repeat the experiment with gram flour extract,rice flour extract, potato extract and record the observations
Time required for the fermentation
# Wheat flour — 10 hours
# Gram flour — 12.5 hours
# Rice flour — 15 hours
# Potato — 13 hours
Rice flour takes maximum time for fermentation and wheat flour takes the minimum time for fermentation.