Wearable sensors and systems have evolved to the point that they can be considered
ready for clinical application. The use of wearable monitoring devices that allow
continuous or intermittent monitoring of physiological signals is critical for
the advancement of both the diagnosis as well as treatment of diseases. Wearable
systems are totally non-obtrusive devices that allow physicians to overcome the
limitations of ambulatory technology and provide a response to the need for monitoring
individuals over weeks or months.
typically rely on wireless miniature sensors enclosed in patches or bandages or
in items that can be worn, such as ring or shirt. The data sets recorded using
these systems are then processed to detect events predictive of possible worsening
of the patient's clinical situations or they are explored to access the impact
of clinical interventions.
is a pulse oximetry sensor that allows one to continuously monitor heart rate
and oxygen saturation in a totally unobtrusive way. The device is shaped like
a ring and thus it can be worn for long periods of time without any discomfort
to the subject. The ring sensor is equipped with a low power transceiver that
accomplishes bi-directional communication with a base station, and to upload date
at any point in time.
Each time the heart muscle
contracts,blood is ejected from the ventricles and a pulse of pressure is transmitted
through the circulatory system.This pressure pulse when traveling through the
vessels,causes vessel wall displacement which is measurable at various points.inorder
to detect pulsatile blood volume changes by photoelectric method,photo conductors
are used.normally photo resistors are used, for amplification purpose photo transistors
Light is emitted by LED and transmitted
through the artery and the resistance of photo resistor is determined by the amount
of light reaching it.with each contraction of heart,blood is forced to the extremities
and the amount of blood in the finger increases.it alters the optical density
with the result that the light transmission through the finger reduces and the
resistance of the photo resistor increases accordingly.The photoresistor is connected
as a part of voltage divider circuit and produces a voltage that varies with the
amount of blood in the finger.This voltage that closely follows the pressure pulse.
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