Bacterio Rhodopsin Memory
The bacterio-rhodopsin protein is one of the most promising organic memory materials. Seven helix-shaped polymers form a membrane structure, which contains a molecule known as the retinal chromophor. The chromophor absorbs light of a certain color and is therefore able to switch to another stable state in addition to its original state. Only blue light can change the molecule back to its original state.
There have been many methods and proteins researched for use in computer applications in recent years. However, among the most promising approaches, and the focus of this particular web page, is 3-Dimensional Optical RAM storage using the light sensitive protein bacterio-rhodopsin.
How Does Protein Memory Work?
In a prototype memory system, bacterio-rhodopsin stores data in a 3-D matrix. The matrix can be build by placing the protein into a curvette (a transparent vessel) filled with a polyacrylamide gel. The protein, which is in the bR state , gets fixed in by the polymerization of the gel. A battery of Krypton lasers and a charge-injection device (CID) array surround the curvette and are used to write and read data.
While a molecule changes states within microseconds, the combined steps to read or write operation take about 10 milliseconds. However like the holographic storage, this device obtains data pages in parallel, so a 10 Mbps is possible. This speed is similar to to that of slow semiconductor memory.
Data Writing Technique
Bacterio-rhodopsin, after being initially exposed to light (in our case a laser beam), will change to between photo isomers during the main photochemical event when it absorbs energy from a second laser beam. This process is known as sequential one-photon architecture, or two-photon absorption. While early efforts to make use of this property were carried out at cryogenic temperatures (liquid nitrogen temperatures), modern research has made use of the different states of bacterio-rhodopsin to carry out these operations at room-temperature.
The process breaks down like this:
Upon initially being struck with light (a laser beam), the bacterio-rhodopsin alters it's structure from the bR native state to a form we will call the O state. After a second pulse of light, the O state then changes to a P form, which quickly reverts to a very stable Q state, which is stable for long periods of time (even up to several years).
The data writing technique proposed by Dr. Birge involves the use of a three-dimensional data storage system. In this case, a cube of bacterio-rhodopsin in a polymer gel is surrounded by two arrays of laser beams placed at 90 degree angles from each other. One array of lasers, all set to green (called "paging" beams), activates the photocycle of the protein in any selected square plane, or page, within the cube. After a few milliseconds, the number of intermediate O stages of bacterio-rhodopsin reaches near maximum. Now the other set, or array, of lasers - this time of red beams - is fired.
The second array is programmed to strike only the region of the activated square where the data bits are to be written, switching molecules there to the P structure. The P intermediate then quickly relaxes to the highly stable Q state. We then assign the initially-excited state, the O state, to a binary value of 0, and the P and Q states are assigned a binary value of 1. This process is now analogous to the binary switching system which is used in existing semiconductor and magnetic memories. However, because the laser array can activate molecules in various places throughout the selected page or plane, multiple data locations (known as "addresses") can be written simultaneously - or in other words, in parallel .
You may also like this : Blue Brain, Brain Gate, Palm Vein Technology, Virtual Surgery, Proteomics , Robotic Surgery, Sensitive Skin, STARFAST, Hybridoma Technology,Iris Scanning, Medical Imaging, Thermography, Treating Cardiac Disease With Catheter-Based Tissue Heating, Brain Implants, Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry, Micro Electronic Pill, Carbon Nanotube Flow Sensors, Biometrics Based Authentication Systems, Bacterio Rhodopsin Memory, Bio Chips, Bioinformatics, Disease Detection Using Bio-robotics, Nanorobotics, Nanotechnology, Optical Coherence Tomography, Biomagnetism, Biometrics, CorDECT,BioMedical Engineering Seminar Reports, PPT and PDF.