Dual Clutch Transmission
Published on Mar 13, 2020
The report introduces and describes the technology of “Dual Clutch Transmission”, which is a relatively new technology. It has the advantage of both automatic and manual gears.
It helps the driver to control the clutch without a clutch pedal, hence giving him a smoother driving. The technology has been used by various car manufactures and is gaining a large market.
A dual-clutch transmission offers the function of two manual gearboxes in one. When a driver wants to change from one gear to another in a standard stick-shift car, he first presses down the clutch pedal. This operates a single clutch, which disconnects the engine from the gearbox and interrupts power flow to the transmission. Then the driver uses the stick shift to select a new gear, a process that involves moving a toothed collar from one gear wheel to another gear wheel of a different size. Devices called synchronizers match the gears before they are engaged to prevent grinding. Once the new gear is engaged, the driver releases the clutch pedal, which re-connects the engine to the gearbox and transmits power to the wheels.
So, in a conventional manual transmission, there is not a continuous flow of power from the engine to the wheels. Instead, power delivery changes from on to off to on during gearshift, causing a phenomenon known as "shift shock" or "torque interrupt." For an unskilled driver, this can result in passengers being thrown forward and back again as gears are changed.
A dual-clutch gearbox, by contrast, uses two clutches, but has no clutch pedal. Sophisticated electronics and hydraulics control the clutches, just as they do in a standard automatic transmission. In a DCT, however, the clutches operate independently. One clutch controls the odd gears (first, third, fifth and reverse), while the other controls the even gears.
Manual transmissions often feature a driver-operated clutch and a movable gear stick. Most automobile manual transmissions allow the driver to select any forward gear ratio ("gear") at any time, but some, such as those commonly mounted on motorcycles and some types of racing cars, only allow the driver to select the next-higher or next-lower gear. This type of transmission is sometimes called a sequential manual transmission. Sequential transmissions are commonly used in auto racing for their ability to make quick shifts.
Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by locking selected gear pairs to the output shaft inside the transmission. Conversely, most automatic transmissions feature epicyclic (planetary) gearing controlled by brake bands and/or clutch packs to select gear ratio. Automatic transmissions that allow the driver to manually select the current gear are called Manumatics. A manual-style transmission operated by computer is often called an automated transmission rather than an automatic.
Contemporary automobile manual transmissions typically use four to six forward gears and one reverse gear, although automobile manual transmissions have been built with as few as two and as many as eight gears.
Dual Clutch Transmissions
The man who invented the dual-clutch gearbox was a pioneer in automotive engineering. AdolpheKégresse is best known for developing the half-track.It wasa type of vehicle equipped with endless rubber treads allowing it to drive off-road over various forms of terrain. In 1939, Kégresse conceived the idea for a dual-clutch gearbox, which he hoped to use on the legendary Citroën "Traction" vehicle. Unfortunately, adverse business circumstances prevented further development.
Both Audi and Porsche picked up on the dual-clutch concept, although its use was limited at first to racecars. The 956 and 962C racecars included the Porsche Dual Klutch, or PDK. In 1986, a Porsche 962 won the Monza 1000 Kilometer World Sports Prototype Championship race the first win for a car equipped with the PDK semi-automatic paddle-shifted transmission. Audi also made history in 1985 when a Sport quattro S1 rally car equipped with dual-clutch transmission won the Pikes Peak hill climb, a race up the 4,300-meter-high mountain.
Commercialization of the dual-clutch transmission, however, has not been feasible until recently. Volkswagen has been a pioneer in dual-clutch transmissions, licensing BorgWarner's DualTronic technology. European automobiles equipped with DCTs include the Volkswagen Beetle, Golf, Touran, and Jetta as well as the Audi TT and A3; the Skoda Octavia; and the Seat Altea, Toledo and Leon.
Dual clutch transmission system is said to incorporate the best of the other two worlds (manual and automatic transmission), without altering engine performance in any way. It can be described as the best solution to improve acceleration: 1-100 km/hr figures- while eliminating more or less the jolts produced by manual gear shifting, atleast for beginners.
With so many advantages of Dual Clutch transmission over the manual, as discussed before, DCT seems to be the next manual. It is also the best transmission for the high end performance cars and racing cars where cost is an issue.
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