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Design and Fabrication of Adjustable Multiseasonal Harvesting Machine


Published on Dec 27, 2018

Abstract

Agriculture plays a vital role in Indian economy. India is a country which is dependent on farming as a main source of income for many families. As far as Indian scenario is concerned, more than 75 percent farmers are belonging to small and marginal land carrying. So any improvement in the productivity related task help to increase Indian farmer’s status and economy. Now a day’s agriculture equipments have lot of limitation and it required more energy to operate. The purpose of the project is to fabricate and enhance the design specifications of harvesting machine for multipurpose crop which should be helpful for the farmers having less & marginal land. Further, the comparative study of harvesting from manual method, machine method and proposed machine method is discussed. It is observed from the results that, the proposed machine method shows reasonably good result when compared manual method and machine method.

Introduction

Harvesting is a process of cutting and gathering of mature crop from the field. Harvester is a machine is used for harvesting. Different types of harvesting machines are available in the market namely crop harvester, onion harvester, paddy harvester, tea harvester, potato harvester, wheat harvester and sugarcane harvester. Crop harvesting machine is as shown in Fig. 1.2, it is able to harvest different variety of grain crops. These machines are highly efficient and can work at a high speed. It can harvest the crops without providing damage to them. Onion harvesting machine is of good quality so that they cannot harm the onions during harvesting. These machines are able to harvest deeply rooted onions with great ease and with enhanced rate. Thus, these machines are in great demand in the market.

Sugarcane harvesting is an agricultural machinery use to harvest and process sugarcane. Sugar cane is a hardy crop that grows in clumps of cylindrical stalks measuring from 1.25 to 7.25 cm in diameter and reaching 6 to 7 m in height. The cane stalks grow straight upward until the stalk becomes too heavy to hold itself up. It then lies on its side and continues to grow upward. This results in a mature cane field lying on top of itself in a mesh pattern. The sugar cane stalks contain a sap from which sugar is processed. To ensure the maximum sugar content of 1 to 17% of total weight, the cane must be harvested immediately after it reaches its final growth period. In areas where hand harvesting prevails, many of the injuries are machete related. These injuries can range from minor cuts to the severing of body parts. Also, the machete is the tool that is most commonly used by the less skilled workers on the farm or plantation.

Keeping the machete sharp aids in reducing injuries, since with a sharp machete the worker does not have to swing as hard and can maintain better control over the machete. Working with cane also can very easily produce injuries and cuts to the eyes. Since cane is grown in tropical and sub-tropical locations, workers also need to be concerned about heat-related health problems. This can be exacerbated due to use of the necessary protective clothing. These regions are also areas of high levels of sun exposure, which can result in various types of skin cancer conditions. Precautions need to be taken to limit or protect against sun exposure. Pesticides and other chemicals may involve toxic risks that can lead to poisoning through skin absorption or inhalation.

Objectives of the Present Work

The objectives of the present study are as given below:

1. To design the harvesting machine for cutting, conveying purpose

2. To fabricate the adjustable mechanism harvesting machine for cutting, conveying purpose.

3. To check the performance of adjustable mechanism and harvesting machine in all seasons.

Fabrication Process

Chasis frame & other parts

This is made out of mild steel of length 4.5 ft and width 4.5 ft welded to the main frame. This is then ground to remove the welding burr and sharp corners on this the other assemblies are welded (Fig. 3.5). Further, the shaft and wheels are attached (Fig. 3.6). Thereafter, two solid shafts are used each shaft carries two cutter upper and lower, and also gives rotary motion to the cutters

Chassis main frame

Cutting of blades

Fabricated model

Multiseasonal Harvesting

Results and Discussion

The time required and number of labors required for the harvesting of different crop is tabulated in Table 4.1. Further, the cost required is also given in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1

The time required and number of labors required for the harvesting of different crop is tabulated in Table 4.2. Further, the cost required is also given in Table 4.2.

Table 4.2

The time required and number of labors required for the harvesting of different crop is tabulated in Table 4.3. Further, the cost required is also given in Table 4.3.

Table 4.3

Comparative Result

The time and number of labors required for harvesting the different crops for manual method, machine method and proposed machine method is tabulated in Table 4.4. Further, the cost required for different method is also given in Table 4.4. The labor required per acre for different methods for different crops is shown in Fig. 4.1. Further, time required and cost required per acre for different methods for different crops is shown in Figs. 4.2 and 4.3, respectively. It is observed from above Figs. that the proposed machine method shows reasonably good results when compared with manual method and machine method.

Comparative result

Scope for feature work:

Though the machine has some innovative concepts, there is still a lot if scope for development like:

 The machine has to be provided with gear box.

 The machine can be made lighter by doing detailed analysis of design & removing excess material wherever it is not necessary.

 With minimal modification this machine can be used for different crops.

Conclusions

The purpose of the project is to fabricate a machine to carry out the operation like harvesting which should be helpful for the farmers having Less & Marginal Land. By the observations of the results and discussion, variation between manual method, machine method and proposed machine method, are described below:

 The labors required for the proposed machine method is less than the manual method and equal to machine method. Further, the machine method cannot be suitable for small scale farmers as it is economically not feasible.

 The time duration required for the proposed machine method is less than the manual method and more than machine method. Further, the machine method cannot be suitable for small scale farmers as it is economically not feasible.

 The cost required for harvesting the one acre land is also less by using proposed machine method.

References

1. Atul R. Dange , Thakare S. K and Bhaskara Rao I, (2011), Cutting energy and force as required for Pigeon pea stems, Journal of Agricultural Technology 2011 Vol. 7(6), pp. 1485-1493, 2011.

2. Adarsh J Jain , Shashank Karne , Srinivas Ratod , Vinay N. Thotad and Kiran P (2013), Design and fabrication of small scale sugarcane harvesting machine, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics Research. Vol 2(3), 2013.

3. Rohit J Masute, chaudhari S. S., Khedkar S. S and Deshmukh B. D., (2014), Review paper on different aspects of sugarcane harvesting methods for optimum performance, Vol. 2(1), pp.52-55, 2014.

4. Siddaling S and Ravikiran B. S., (2015), Design and fabrication of small scale sugar cane harvesting machine, International Journal of Research in Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 3(4), pp. 293-298, 2015.

Project Done By Ms. Pratiksha A. Yadravkar, Mr. Vijayakumar Chavan, Mr. Prakash Rathod , Mr. Rajesh Pawar





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