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Arduino Based Water Quality Monitoring System

Published on Dec 05, 2020


Water pollution is one of the biggest threats for the green globalization. Water pollution affects human health by causing waterborne diseases. To prevent the water pollution, necessary steps are to be taken. First step is to estimate the water parameters like pH, turbidity, conductivity etc., as the variations in the values of these parameters point towards the presence of pollutants. In the present scenario, water parameters are detected by chemical tester laboratory test, where the testing equipment’s are stationary and samples are provided to testing equipment’s. Thus, it is a manual system with tedious process and is very time consuming. In order to minimize the time and to make the system automated, the testing equipment’s can be placed in the river water and detection of pollution can be made remotely. To ensure the safe supply of drinking water, the quality should be monitored in real time for that purpose Arduino based water quality monitoring has been proposed. In this report, the design of Arduino based water quality monitoring system that monitors the quality of water in real time is presented.

This system consists of different sensors which measures the water quality parameter such as pH, conductivity, muddiness of water, temperature. The measured values from the sensors are processed by microcontroller and the processed values are transmitted using GSM to the concerned authority.


The quality of water has an impact on the living beings. Water quality testing is an important part of environmental monitoring. Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose. In this project, the main parameters that define water quality are monitored and observed. To monitor the parameters different sensors like pH, IR, Temperature and Conductivity sensors are used. All the measured parameters are compared with the threshold value that defines the purity. Once the parameters are measured they are sent to authority in the form of alert messages.

Objective and Methodology

Since water quality is an important aspect in human life, this project contributes in the direction of monitoring the quality of water. The system proposed here is a water quality monitoring system in the Arduino platform that measures the pH, conductivity, temperature, and presence of suspended items on the water bodies like lakes and rivers using sensors. These sensed parameters are sent to the authorized person via GSM system in the form of messages, so that proper action can be taken by the authority in cleaning the water bodies to reduce the possible health problem that could occur. The block diagram describing the proposed system and its interconnection along with the stages involved is as described below.

Water Quality

The proposed system consists of 3 major stages. Sensing stage, Computing and controlling and Communication stage.

The Sensing stage consists of following sensors.

 pH sensor:

If chemical effluents from the industries are let into water bodies the pH value of the water changes depending on type of chemical i.e., either acidic or basic. The pH sensor measures the level of pH in water by measuring the activity of hydrogen ions in water.

 Temperature sensor:

Due to microbial activities temperature of water may increase which is one of the factor deciding the purity. The temperature sensor measures the temperature of water.

 Conductivity sensor:

It checks the salinity of water. This parameter affects aquatic life. The signal received by these sensors are applied to Arduino board which is the controlling and computing part of the system. The computing stage involves comparing the sensed values from sensor with the predefined threshold value. If sensed value does not match with the threshold value, then a message is sent to authorized person with the help of communication stage. Communication stage involves GSM modem. Based on the messages received the concerned person can initiate necessary action.

Results and Discussions

The experimental setup for water quality monitoring system using Arduino Uno is shown in the Fig 2.Whenever the sensed parameter values exceed the threshold, message is sent to authorized person. The thresholds set for IR, pH, conductivity and temperature are 1V, 7, 3V and 40 degrees Celsius respectively. The Fig 3 shows the SMS containing alert message and parameter value. Based on the parameters sensed by different sensors, an alert message will be received by the authorized person and accordingly they take necessary action to prevent or control pollution level.

Future Scope

The capability of water quality monitoring system can be enhanced to obtain more efficient reliable results. The number of parameters to be sensed can be increased by the addition of multiple sensors to measure dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ammonia nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate. The system can be further upgraded using wireless sensor networks. The system can be expanded to monitor hydrologic, air pollution, industrial and agricultural production and so on. It has widespread application and extension value. Work can be carried on to include controlling the supply of water.


Real time system for water quality measurement based on GSM is presented in this report. The system is incredibly versatile and economical. It is a real-time system that measures numerous parameters pertaining to the water and send them to the monitoring center. The system can monitor water quality automatically, and it is low in cost anddoesn't need individuals on duty.The system has good flexibility. It is a versatile system, because of which simply by replacing the sensors and by making some changes within the computer code, the system can be used to measure some other parameters of water. The system is reliable and easy to maintain and it can be extended to measure water pollution as well. By effectively using the proposed system, one can save time and cost can also be reduced.


[1] Nikhil Kedia, Water Quality Monitoring for Rural Areas- A Sensor Cloud Based Economical Project, in 1st International Conference on Next Generation Computing Technologies (NGCT-2015) Dehradun, India, 4-5 September 2015. 978-1-4673-6809-4/15/$31.00 ©2015 IEEE

[2] Jayti Bhatt, Jignesh Patoliya, Iot Based Water Quality Monitoring System, IRFIC, 21feb,2016.

[3] Michal lom, ondrej priby & miroslav svitek, Internet 4.0 as a part of smart cities, 978-1-5090-1116-2/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE

[4] Zhanwei Sun, Chi Harold Liu, Chatschik Bisdikia_, Joel W. Branch and Bo Yang, 2012 9th Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks

Project Done By Akshatha A C , Jevita Zeena D’Silva , Likhithashreedevi , Madhumitha Karanth

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