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Engineering Projects

Sustainable Toilet

Published on Nov 30, 2023


Environmental sanitation is a major public health issue in india. It envisages promotion of health of the community by providing clean environment and breaking the cycle of disease. It depends on various factors that include hygiene status of the people, types of resources available, innovative and appropriate technologies according to the requirement of the community, socioeconomic development of the country, social factors including behavioral pattern of the community and others. India is still lagging far behind many countries in the field of environmental sanitation.

About 545 million people do not use toilet in India which is more than half the population. Around 50% of the population does not have proper sanitation facility. Apart from poverty and lack of lavatories, one of the reasons is old practices which lead to open defecation in India. Consequently, open defecation cause major diseases like as diarrhea, cholera and typhoid.

Through this project, we aim to provide a solution to these problems via the implementation of sustainable toilets. Sustainable toilets are a complete solid waste management solution, which is ideal for implementation in every household.

Bio digester technology along with charcoal unit has been developed for resolving the problems of un-decomposed human waste. The innovation degrades and converts the human waste into usable water and gasses in an eco-friendly manner. The generated gas can be utilized for energy/cooking and water for irrigation purposes.

The process involves the bacteria which feed upon the faecal matter inside the tank, through anaerobic process which finally degrades the matter and releases methane gas that can be used for cooking, along with the treated water. There is 100% sludge-free disposal of human waste. This is an eco-friendly solution and free from any hazards, and can function in any climate.

Keywords : Noise Absorbing Composite Materials, Agro Waste Products, Noise insulation

Salient Features

 No bad smell in toilets from the tanks

 Faecal matter in the tank not visible

 No infestation of cockroaches & flies

 No clogging of digester

 Effluent is free from off odor and solid waste

 Reduction in pathogens by 99%

 Reduction in organic matter by 90%

 No maintenance required

 No requirement of adding bacteria/ enzyme

 No need of removal of solid waste

 Use of phenyl is permitted up to 84 ppm

We are implementing this project at a government school in Kakolu, which is a village that is developing constantly. Kakolu government high school is one of the school which has necessity for staff toilet.


This study aims to explain not only the technology use through TAM but also how the community thinks towards the ETS based on their perceived behavioral control (or facilitation conditions) and subjective norms, in which TPB is capable of explaining. An integrated TAM and TPB to evaluate potential users’ perceptions and attitudes toward the ETS in rural areas is proposed. This methodology allows us to determine how technology adoption in particular to eco-toilet systems is affected by the perception on technology use, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms. The integrated theory of TAM and TPB has already been explored to analyze projects that promote sustainable development such as green transportation but not on sanitation.


Public Orientation to the ETS

The eco-toilet system was introduced to the community through a consultation meeting with the stakeholders and project presentation in the pilot sites (e.g., in Mulanay). This was conducted to present the concept of the ETS project that will be initiated in the rural area, as well as to enhance the awareness thereof. The eco-toilet that was introduced to the community was a urine-diverting type. This type of ETS has the ability to safely collect and process excreta (urine and feces) with compost additives into liquid and soil conditioners through aerobic decomposition. The main components of the ETS are:

(1) superstructure,

(2) urine diverting toilet (as illustrated in Figure 1),

(3) collection chamber,

(4) collection tank for urine, and

(5) compost mixer.

The superstructure is the main building structure of the ETS facility. This serves as the shelter and provides the privacy for the users. The superstructure also holds the collection chamber. The urine-diverting toilet is designed to separate urine and feces that occurs at the commode. The urine diverter is connected to a collection tank located in the collection chamber, while the feces drop hole is centered beneath the compost mixer. Foul odors are prevented by tightly closing the urine collection tank and by frequently mixing the feces with locally available dehydrating materials such as rice hull. Further details are explained elsewhere [22,23]. The urine and compost products were processed onsite until they were ready and safe for agricultural use

Finally, the public orientation was also executed to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the implementers and the adopters once the ETS units are already installed. Further, this activity was also facilitated to get the public’s opinion about the ETS.

Technology Acceptance Model

Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was originally introduced by Davis in 1989 to understand and provide explanation on the decision factors of the users on accepting new information technology systems [20]. This model assumes that the technology adoption is directly affected by the users’ behavioral intention (BIU). BIU is a variable that predicts how the users intentionally engage in the adoption or actual use of a new technology (i.e., to adopt or not to adopt a new system). This decision factor is influenced by both perceived usefulness (PU) and attitude towards the use (ATU) of the new technology. PU refers to the belief of the users that using the new technology would improve the performance on a certain task. On the other hand, ATU pertains to the emotional judgment of the users on the idea of performing a certain behavior or task. The TAM also considers two major constructs that directly affect ATU. The first construct is the PU and the second is the perceived ease of use (PEU). The latter refers to the convenience and effortlessness of using the new technology. PEU also directly affects the PU of the new technology [24].

Theory of Planned Behavior

Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was initiated by Ajzen [20] to provide explanation on how behavioral intention (BIU) is influenced by the subjective norms (SN), perceived behavioral control (PBC), and ATU. SN is a measurement variable that describes how important individuals or groups favor or not favor the users’ usage of the new technology. In other words, the users’ decision towards usage of a technology or system depends on social influences. Another construct that is directly associated to the BIU is the PBC. The PBC refers to the resources (i.e., skills, experiences, money), and opportunities that enable the users to perform a behavior. The TPB assumes that sufficiency in the resources and opportunities would less hinder technology adoption and would increase the PBC of the users. ATU, in PBC, is similar to its definition in TAM


This work provides an elucidation on the factors that affect the perceptions and attitudes of the rural community towards the eco-toilet system (ETS) using Mulanay, Quezon as the study area in the Philippines. The combined Technology Acceptance Model—Theory of Planned Behavior (C-TAM-TPB) provides a useful tool in defining and explaining the significant predictors of community behavior towards adoption of new technology, particularly the eco-toilet. The findings reveal that attitude is the main driver of behavioral intention to use the ETS, which could be enhanced by promoting the ease of use and usefulness of the ETS. Creating demand on sanitation in rural areas also influences the perception of the users towards the use of technology. In addition, the ETS is most appealing to the people of Mulanay if the water conservation benefit will be guaranteed.


1. United Nations. Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals: Report of the Secretary-General. Available online: pdf (accessed on 14 February 2018).

2. WHO/UNICEF. Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: 2017 Update and SDG Baselines; World Health Organization (WHO): Geneva, Switzerland, 2017.

3. The World Bank. Economic Assessment of Sanitation Interventions in the Philippines a Six-Country Study Conducted in Lao PDR, the Philippines and Vietnam under the Economics of Sanitation Initiative (ESI); The World Bank: Washington, DC, USA, 2011.

Project Done By Mr. Harshavardhan V., Mr. Aakash R. Jakati, Ms. Sahana S., Mr. Dilna Jose