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Treatment of Textile Effluent Using Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles

Published on Nov 30, 2023


World is facing challenges in meeting rising demands of clean water due to extended droughts, population growth, more stringent health based regulations and competing demands from a variety of users. In recent years, the waste water discharged into receiving waters has become a serious environmental problem. The uncontrolled disposal of the waste water not only results in deterioration of health and environment but also wastage of raw materials and energy. Textile industries consume large quantity of fresh water and discharges almost same amount of waste water. The effluent contains wide range of chemicals including various dye stuffs. These dyes are highly structured organic compounds and are difficult to be broken down biologically. Effluent discharged from textile industry causes serious environmental threats due to its high contamination of color and organic matter. Production of dyestuffs and pigments in India is close to 80,000 tones.

The textile industry accounts for the largest consumption of dyestuffs, at nearly 80%. The Indian textile industries now predominantly use synthetic organic dyes like processing dyes or Cremazoles (orange 3R, brown GR and blue S1) , direct dyes (Violet , congo red, Royal blue and Bordeaux) and reactive dyes. The conventional treatment methods do not degrade the effluents up to the limit it can be recycled and also require detection time of several days. The main challenge for the textile industry today is modify production methods, so they are more ecologically friendly at a competitive price, by using safer dyes and chemicals and by reducing cost of effluent treatment/ disposal.

Keywords : Photo catalytic degradation , Ultraviolet visible light, Textile Effluent, Titanium Oxide.


 To Study Effluent Characteristics of textile industry.

 To study use of titanium oxide nanoparticle technique as catalyst for decomposition of various compound of water.

 To study the effect of process parameter like pH, temperature, titanium oxide dosage, contact time.

 To evaluate the removal efficiency of waste water parameter like BOD, COD, Total dissolved Solids and color using titanium oxide nanoparticle as absorbent.

 To quantify titanium oxide concentration in lab scale treatment reactor in absorption capacity of wastewater for titanium oxide nanoparticles.

 To study characteristics of wastewater biomass.

 To evaluate performance of nanoparticle in batch reactor for its feasibility, simplicity and economical aspects.


The photocatalytic Degradation setup was developed in terms of design, fabrication, and construction of the reactor; whereas the experimental process was optimized in terms process conditions such as pH, temperature, catalyst dose, and contact time. The materials used in the reactor fabrication were mainly fiber no more than one-half inch thick and a quartz tube and liquid silicon. The reactor was constructed at laboratory scale.

The apparatus consists of

 Fiber Reactor of capacity 1 L

 Magnetic stirrer.

 Stand to elevate the reactor off the ground.

 Switchboard for electrical supply

All experiments have been performed at the Environmental lab, Civil Department building SECAB INSTITUTE OF ENGG AND TECH VIJAYAPURA, in an open atmosphere between 11.00 a.m.-1.00 p.m. An electrical magnetic stirrer with magnetic ball was used continuously so that catalyst can be uniformly dispersed in the solution when the sample was degraded by UV light. For the present study, textile effluent was collected from Bijapur industrial area, which is involved in manufacturing and trade of textile products.

Experimental Procedure Flowchart:

Textile Effluent


The effluent sample collected during dyeing and washing operation were Blue to Black in color, giving pungent smell and varying temperature [28⁰-50⁰C]. Close to source the pH of the effluent was highly alkaline in nature [10.86]. Effluent contained high concentration of TDS, COD & BOD. The photo catalytic degradation experiments were carried out under the UV light by varying the amount of titanium oxide dosage from 0.25% to 1.25%. The effect of pH on degradation of textile effluent was studied at varying pH ranges ( 5, 6, 7). The most effective pH turned out to be 6. The results found that the decolorization of textile industrial Effluent increases with increasing temperature. The maximum degradation was found at 30 ⁰C. When the contact time of photo catalyst was continued till 3 hrs under UV light source and the organic compound removal efficiency as 97%. The maximum Degradation of effluent was found at dosage of 1% of TiO2 as sown in table.

Degradation of effluent

Scope For Future Work :

In recent years, photocatalysis system has attracted great interest from science community as the most promising way to solve the environmental problems, especially getting rid of residual dyes pollutants from wastewater stream. In this manner, photocatalysis system is considered to be ideal green environmental solution to realize our green economy future. The industrial application of TiO2 nanopaeticles is anticipated for the future due to its high photocatalytic activity, photostability, and nontoxicity. Nevertheless, further modifications are essential to improve its photocatalytic activity under the direct sunlight irradiation. Another possible development of this work would be to go on exploring the efficiency of different Nanoparticles in Photocatalysis process, for more effective treatment of textile dyes.


In this experimental work, the effectiveness of using TiO2 nanoparticles as photo catalysis in removing toxic organic pollutants from textile industry waste water was investigated. It was observed that the increase in the intensity of solar UV light resulted in the increase in the efficiency of color removal from textile effluent. Photo catalytic activity of TiO2 was studied on textile effluent at various concentration of TiO2 and it was found that 1.0% TiO2 in 100 ml effluent and 24 hours was most effective for photo reduction. The degradation of effluent at 1% TiO2 dosage was found to be maximum removal of COD & BOD with removal percentage of 95% & 92%. The results suggest that the use of solar light irradiation could be a feasible, efficient and environmentally friendly technique for decolorization & degradation of textile dye samples and it could also become a cost effective technique at industrial scale application.

Project Done By Ms. Mulla Gausiyabanu , Ms. Akshata M Honwad., Ms. Vijaylaxmi Badigaer, Mr. Manoj G Mangalgi