Hybrid Biomass Briquette Machine
Published on Dec 31, 2018
The study presents a detailed design study of the new briquetting machine called hybrid biomass briquetting machine. Briquetting of the saw dust represents one of the possible solutions to the local energy shortages in many developing countries. Briquetting of the saw dust represents one of the possible solutions to the local energy shortages in many developing countries. It constitutes a positive solution to the problem of increasing rates of desertification in many areas worldwide. The production cost was found to be lower due to the lower binder requirement for the new machine, which is lower by about 65%. The initial moisture content of the feed stock required for this machine is lower by about 30 % compared to the best alternative, which results in shorter drying time for the fuel briquettes produced. The quality of the produced briquettes was found to be better and of lower smoke generation when burned due to the lower binder content .
The device is simple and comfortable. Basic calculation, drawing, designing is included in the project . The salient features of our machine can be listed as the mechanism used is very simple, easy for operation; no skill is required to operate the machine.
The production of a compacted solid out of loose granular material on an industrial scale is a nineteenth century technique first used to make a solid fuel out of peat. It has since become a widespread technology in many fields, for example animal feedstuffs, fertilizers and iron making. Fuel briquetting of peat and, particularly, brown coal is still practiced on a large scale. The application of briquetting to biomass residues from agriculture or forestry is of later origin, being used on a widespread scale in USA during the depression, 1930s, and in central European countries suffering from fuel shortages during the Second World War.
The briquetting of wood wastes using screw presses was pioneered in the late 1940s in Japan as a wood substitute. In the era of cheap oil in the 1950s and 1960s, biomass fuel briquetting was little used but it revived again after 1974 when there was a general search for alternative fuels for oil. Historically, biomass briquetting technology has been developed in two distinct directions. Europe and the United States have pursued and perfected the reciprocating ram/piston press while Japan has independently invented and developed the screw press technology.
Although both technologies have their merits and demerits, it is universally accepted that the screw pressed briquettes are far superior to the ram pressed solid briquettes in terms of their storability and combustibility. Japanese machines are now being manufactured in Europe under licensing agreement but no information has been reported about the manufacturing of European machines in Japan. Worldwide, both technologies are being used for briquetting of sawdust and locally available agro-residues. Although the importance of biomass briquettes as a substitute fuel for wood, coal and lignite is well recognized, the numerous failures of briquetting machines in almost all developing countries have inhibited their extensive exploitation. (Biomass briquetting technology and practices) Biomass densification represents a set of technologies for the conversion of biomass residues into a convenient fuel. The technology is also known as briquetting or agglomeration.
Based on operating conditions it could be classified into two categories: - Hot and high pressure densification - Cold and low pressure densification Based on mode of operation it falls into two categories:
- Batch densification
- Continuous densification Depending on the types of equipment used, it could be categorized into five main types:
- Piston press densification
- Screw press densification
- Roll press densification
- Low pressure or manual presses
On the basis of compaction pressure, the densification technologies can be divided into:
- High pressure compaction
- Medium pressure compaction with a heating device
- Low pressure compaction with a binder
High compaction technology or binder less technology consists of the piston press, the screw press and pelletizing. In all these compaction techniques, solid particles are the starting point. The first two techniques use raw biomass materials, while the last two techniques could be used for both raw and carbonized biomass materials. Low pressure compaction includes manually operated briquetting presses of different types. Depending on the type of equipment used, densified biomass can be categorized into two main types: briquettes and pellets. Briquettes are of relatively large sizes, typically 5 - 6 cm in diameter and 30 - 40 cm in length. Pellets are small in size, about 1 cm in diameter and 2 cm in length. Because of small and uniform size, pellets are particularly suitable for automatic auger fed combustions.
To produce biomass briquettes of diameter 70 mm-30mm with a calorific value of around 3700 – 4600 kcal/kg.
To utilize the man power to produce biomass briquettes.
To produce biomass briquettes with a lower ash content of around 0.7 – 18 % as compared to that of coal which is around 20- 40 %.
To produce biomass briquettes of density 1000 – 1200 kg/m3 depending upon the raw materials fed into the system.
To produce solid briquettes which would burn for longer period of time as compared to that classical densified biomass.
Components of Hybrid Biomass Briquette
The Hybrid Bio Mass Briquette Machine Consists of Following Elements
A cone die is a specialized tool used in manufacturing industries to cut or shape material using a press. Like molds, dies are generally customized to the item they are used to create. In this system a screw press is being used.
A gears are used to transmit the power with the help of gear arrangement we create the necessary power to produce the briquettes.
The purpose of a bearing is to reduce rotational friction and support radial and axial loads. It achieves this by using at least two races to contain the balls and transmit the loads through the balls. In most applications, one race is stationary and the other is attached to the rotating assembly.
The motor used in the system is a 2 Hp, 1440 rpm, 240 V,3 phase current, inclined mounted as it is been housed on the base.
It acts a feeding device through which the raw various materials are fed into the screw housing. The hopper is made by the sheet metal. Different size and shape of hopper is used for the briquetting machine. Raw materials are stored in the hopper when the machine runs. Waste biomass (husk) is feed gradually to the machine and briquette is produced.
It is used to support the total load of the system comprising of various components like screw, barrel, screw housing etc. Frame is made by different size of angle bar and sheet metal. In the figure below a complete frame is shown. The function of the frame is to hold the motor. It also resists vibration during running.
A pulley is a wheel on an axle that is designed to support movement of a cable or belt along its circumference. It is fabricated by casting it is circular in shape. The operations of facing, turning, boring, groove cutting (V-type) are performed step by step. Lathe and Shaper are used for doing other operations. It is the power transmission device, which transfer power from the motor to the main power transmission of the briquetting machine. Belt is used for transmission power from electric motor to the main shaft. RPM of the motor is also reducing by using pulley of different diameter. RPM of about 160 is suitable for the machine.
The various raw materials which can be fed into the system are:- Groundnut-shell, Sugarcane Biogases, Caster Shells/Stalk Saw dust, Coffee Husk Paddy Straw, Sunflower Stalk, Cotton Stalks, Tobacco waste, Mustard Stalk, Jute waste Bamboo Dust, Tea waste, Wheat Straw, Palm husk, Soybeans husk Coir Pitch, Barks/Straws Rice Husks, Forestry wastes, Wood Chips, Cow dung, Glycerine etc.
Power transmission shaft:
Mild steel is use for making the main power transmission shaft. It is round in shape of length 45 cm and the diameter of 7 cm. All operations for making this shaft are done by lathe drilling and shaper machine. Its one end joined with the main pulley. The main power transmission shaft transfer power from the source (electrical motor) through pulley to the screw of the briquetting machine. This main shaft rotates with the main pulley. Two bearing are used for decrease the frictional loss of the main shaft.
The screw was made by applying various machining process in the local workshop. The screw conveys the raw material and feed it through the barrel or die of the briquetting machine. The screw creates pressure on the raw materials when it passes through die. High temperature and pressure densified the raw material and the briquette is produced. Finally it performs two main works, one is conveying and other is densifing the raw materials.
Screw housing or Feeder:
Screw housing is made by casting and finished by machining. The fuel-feeding hopper is placed above it by using nut and bolt. It is a confined chamber. Raw materials enter the chamber through the hopper and are being compressed by the screw within it. It consists of two parts and is fastened tighter by nut and bolt.
Working Of Hybrid Biomass Briquette Machine
The major reason for biomass residue briquetting is in most cases to increase the bulk density of a given material. A more general term for this process is thus densification. Briquetting is the process of densification of biomass to produce homogeneous, uniformly sized solid pieces of high bulk density which can be conveniently used as a fuel.
Initially the raw material is fed through the hopper.
The volume of the material is decreased as it is transferred from the hopper to the die exit through the screw & hence the raw material is compacted.
This is achieved by increasing the root diameter of the threaded shaft gradually starting with a small diameter at the feeding position and increases gradually to a maximum value at the die position.
This briquetting process consists of extrusion of the material by a screw extruder which acts as a continuous feeder.
It is a type of direct extrusion process.
The end product is continuously drawn out a particular rate through the die exit.
Design of Biomass Briquette Machine
When a new product or their elements are to be designed, a designer may proceed as follows:
1. Make a detailed statement of the problems completely; it should be as clear as possible & also the purpose for which the machine is to be designed.
2. Make selection of the possible mechanism which will give the desire motion.
3. Determine the forces acting on it and energy transmitted by each element of the Machine.
4. Select the material best suited for each element of the machine.
5. Determine the allowable or design stress considering all the factors that affect the Strength of the machine part.
6. Identify the importance and necessary and application of the machine.
7. Problems with existing requirement of the machine productivity and demand.
8. Determine the size of each element with a view to prevent undue distortion or breakage under the applied load.
9. Modify the machine element or parts to agree with the past experience and judgment and to facilitate manufacture.
10. Make assembly and detail drawings of machine with complete specification for the materials and manufacturing methods i.e. accuracy, Surface finish etc.
We can measure the amount of heat from a combustion reaction by measuring the effect the heat produced from the reaction has on a container surrounding the reaction chamber filled with water. This apparatus is called a bomb calorimeter. The test procedure includes the following steps:
The instrument was calibrated and verified using a benzoic acid tablet.
The biomass sample of 0.5 - 1.0 g was weighed on a precision balance.
The powdered sample was inserted in the capsule and the capsule was pressed to compact the material.
The capsule was carefully placed into the holder.
The cotton thread was attached and the firing cotton was ensured that lies on top of the capsule.
The bomb was lowered in the calorimeter and the cover was then closed.
The start button was pressed to begin the test.
In recent years, the use of biomass as a source of energy became of great interest world-wide because of its environmental advantages. The use of biomass for energy production (biofuels) has been increasingly proposed as a substitute for fossil fuels. Biomass can also offer an immediate solution for the reduction of the CO2 content in the atmosphere. It has three other main advantages: firstly its availability can be nearly unlimited, secondly it is locally produced and thirdly it can be used essentially without damage to the environment. In addition to its positive global effect in comparison with other sources of energy, it presents no risk of major accidents, as do nuclear and oil energy. Due to their heterogeneous nature, biomass materials possess inherently low bulk densities, and thus it is difficult to efficiently handle large quantities of most feed stocks. Therefore, large expenses are incurred during material handling (transportation, storage, etc.). As coal is a non renewable source of energy and is on the verge of extinction .Thus there is a immediate need of finding a substitute to it. The following table explains using of biomass briquettes as a substitute to coal in near future. Following pictures are the briquettes produced by hybrid biomass briquette machine.
Scope for Future Work:
The device affords plenty of scope for modifications, further improvements & operational efficiency, which should make it commercially available & attractive. If taken up for commercial production and marketed properly, we are sure it will be accepted in the industry. It has plenty of scope if the device is made larger in size. Farmers economic condition increases, solar energy panel fix for generate current it’s one time investment reduces the paying bill. Increases job.
The raw material availability for the device is quite good and the handling is quite simple. For commercial purpose one can improve the efficiency of the device effectively by increasing the size of the device. The lowest electrical energy consumption for saw dust. briquettes produced, without and with pre-heating respectively & It can be operated in the absence of electricity The briquetting system used is based on a power screw concept, and is suitable for the briquetting of the carbonized agricultural waste for household fuel production. The system showed a very good production rate. The production rate of this system is found to be 120 kg/hr(when operated by a motor) & 60-80 kg/hr(manually), The binder content required by this system was lower. which means a big reduction in the total production cost, and better quality due to the lower smoke generation. The initial moisture content of the slurry required for the new system was reduced to 35% instead of 50% this resulted in lower drying time of the produced briquettes.
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[2.] Dr.Nandini Shekhar,2010,Popularization of Biomass Briquettes A Mean Sustainable Rural development, Asian Journal Of Management Research.
[3.] USAID. 1993. Advancing Cogeneration in the Indian Sugar Industry. USAI Report No. 93-02, Winrock International, USA.
[4.] H.G.Patil, Machine Design DATA Hand Book,Shri Shashi Publications.
Project Done By Mr. Sanjeev P Talawar, Mr. Lokesh Kundgol, Mr. Devegouda S Patil, Mr.Ravikumar Jadhav