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Published on Nov 30, 2023


A robotic arm incorporates an articulate system, which together function in much same way as its biological counterpart. The skeleton is composed of rigid links that connect varying numbers of joints that are capable of sliding, twisting or rotating. The robot's muscles come in the form of actuators that convert hydraulic, electrical or pneumatic energy into power for each joint. Next there is an electronic nervous system of wires and sensors that carries commands to the muscles of the robotic arm and then back to an external computer.

The main difference between the arm of the robot and that of a human is found at the arm's extremity. Rather than having a flexible, multi-fingered hand, typical robot arms end in special-purpose devices called end-effectors, which are installed directly into the wrist. To reduce the number of calculations, needed to determine the robot's exact position, the base is generally kept stationary.

In a few applications, however, like the robots in spot welding, robots are programmed to follow an assembly line. The motions of the robots can be programmed by means of direct teaching where the arm is manually guided through its desired motion and the robot's computer remembers these specific motions, sort of like a watch and learn method. Robots can also be taught by means of programming by a computer specialist.

Finally there is always the option of creating a learning computer that will gather data as it makes mistakes and on the following attempt, it won't make the same mistake again.

Pressure applied to a confined fluid at any point is transmitted undiminished and equally throughout the fluid in all directions and acts upon every part of the confining vessel at right angles to its interior surfaces.

Amplification of Force

Since pressure P applied on an area A gives rise to a force F, given as, F = P×A Thus, if a force is applied over a small area to cause a pressure P in a confined fluid, the force generated on a larger area can be made many times larger than the applied force that crated the pressure. This principle is used in various hydraulic devices to such hydraulic press to generate very high forces.

Future Scope:

1. Incorporate driver board circuits for giving power for driving the system.

2. Introduce a suitable filter into the hydraulic circuit.

3. Incorporate safety circuits to save future damage to the circuit

4. Repair, lubricate & replace mechanical components at the joint level to reduce friction

5. Devise a sensor-actuator configuration to implement a feedback mechanism

6. Develop a program for microprocessor based control of the robotic arm to implement full autonomous action.

Project Done By Abhinav Tripathi, Kulbhushan, Kumar Akhilesh, Pankaj Singh, Navneet Verma