Published on Sep 03, 2020
In the growing world of technology, cellular devices have quickly emerged as one of the fastest evolving fields. They have increased greatly in both popularity and complexity, requiring more advanced operating systems and applications to meet the demands of the consumer. Android is a software stack designed to meet these demands in an open source environment.
The project is currently being developed and funded by the Open Handset Alliance, which includes companies such as Google and T-Mobile. Android includes an operating system, middleware, and key applications, as well as a Software Development Kit (SDK) for developers to create their own applications for the Android environment. Due to its open source license and tools provided, Android is an ideal platform for bringing the mobile market to the educational realm.
This paper describes in detail what Android is, its architecture, and why developers should choose Android to develop in a mobile de-vice platform environment. The paper also discusses the basic hardware requirements for porting the current version of Android to real hardware.
Android supports its own Power Management (on top of the standard Linux Power Management) designed with the premise that the CPU shouldn't consume power if no applications or services require power. Android requires that applications and services request CPU resources with "wake locks" through the Android application framework and native Linux libraries. If there are no active wake locks, Android will shut down the CPU.
In our proposed system those handy applications like Bluetooth, WI-Fi will get turn-off automatically when the battery percentage reach to a certain point. So users don’t have to bother about to turn-off these applications when they are not in use. The Android Framework exposes power management to services and applications through the Power Manager class.
Android will ship with a set of core applications including an email client, SMS program, calendar, maps, browser, contacts, and others. All applications are written using the Java programming language.
Developers have full access to the same framework APIs used by the core applications. The application architecture is designed to simplify the reuse of components; any application can publish its capabilities and any other application may then make use of those capabilities (subject to security constraints enforced by the framework). This same mechanism allows components to be replaced by the user.
Underlying all applications is a set of services and systems, including:
• A rich and extensible set of Views that can be used to build an application, including lists, grids, text boxes, buttons, and even an embeddable web browser
• Content Providers that enable applications to access data from other applications (such as Contacts), or to share their own data
• A Resource Manager, providing access to non-code resources such as localized strings, graphics, and layout files
• A Notification Manager that enables all applications to display custom alerts in the status bar
• An Activity Manager that manages the lifecycle of applications and provides a common navigation back stack
The objective is to save the battery power to make our mobile alive for a long period. Let us look at the power consumption by the applications like Bluetooth, WI-FI and Brightness.
Flight mode 20% - the basic power consumption when almost all functionality is turned off.
Brightness – it takes 20% when it used at maximum and on average 10-12% .
Wi-Fi - 8% when turned on but not actively used and 13% when turned being actively used.
Bluetooth - 4% when it is not actively used.10% when it is actively used. If the total is 100% it represents that the battery is drained at the maximum possible speed. Hence we can save the power from 30% up to 50% approx.
Highlights of the Project
The technology used here in Android 2.1 platform. We already had Android’s earlier versions. But Android 2.1 is a minor platform release deployable to Android-powered handsets starting in January 2010. This release includes new API changes and bug fixes. For information on changes. For developers, the Android 2.1 platform is available as a downloadable component for the Android SDK. The downloadable platform includes a fully compliant Android library and system image, as well as a set of emulator skins, sample applications, and more. The downloadable platform includes no external libraries.
The hardware and software requirements for the development phase of our project are:
Software Requirements :
• Windows XP (32-bit) or Vista (32- or 64-bit)
• Mac OS X 10.4.8 or later (x86 only)
• Linux (tested on Linux Ubuntu Hardy Heron)
• 64-bit distributions must be capable of running 32-bit applications.
Hardware Requirements :
• Although the source code for Android has not been officially released, it is still possible to port Android to real hardware.
• By using a compiled Linux kernel and applying the necessary Android patches, one can port Android to a real device and run a version of Android on the device. .
• Android is currently very hardware specific and when choosing a device to port to, one must abide by the minimum hardware requirements. Since Google has not released the source code to Android, only code available in the SDK can be used.
• The SDK itself uses an open source processor emulator, known as QEMU.