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Mine Detection Using Radar Bullets


Published on Jan 16, 2016

Abstract

Now a day in places like Afghanistan and Iraq we know that land mines are causing serious threat to the lives of civilians. The mines that are implanted during the wartime may remain undetected for several decades and may suddenly be activated after that. Also during wartime mines implanted by our enemy countries are to be detected and diffused properly in order to save the lives of our soldiers. So we should say that detecting landmines is important for every country today.

MINE AFFECTED COUNTRIES

The countries known to have severe landmine problems are Afghanistan, Bosnia, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Vietnam, Iraq, Kuwait, Laos, Egypt, Eritrea, Chevalier, China. Unfortunately India, Pakistan, Srilanka, Myanmar are in the list of less mine affected countries besides other 100 countries.

WHAT IS A LAND MINE?

The purpose of a landmine is to disable, immobilize or kill. It is an explosive device activated either by a person or vehicle or by command detonated by electric wire or radio signals. Most land mines are laid on just below the surface of ground and are activated by pressure or trip-wire. Usually most of the land mines will contain many metallic parts, which can be made use of in their detection.

Anti-personal mines claims 70 new victims every day. This weapon is particularly cruel on children whose bodies being smaller and closer to the blast are more likely to sustain serious injury. The severe disabilities and psychological traumas that follow the blast- means these children will have to be looked after for many years.

A child injured at the age of 10 will need about 25 critical limbs during there life time. This cost in 3000 Dollars a huge sum to pay in countries where people earn as little as 10 dollar a month. . Between 1979 of 1996 the red crores fitted over 70,000 amputees with critical limbs and the land mine problem in still growing. There for considering these factors the discovery of radar bullet is really a big boost to our world as we launches to 21st century.

WHAT IS A RADAR BULLET?

The radar bullet is a special type of bullet. The main use of radar bullet is to find landmines without setting foot on the ground. This consists of firing a special bullet in to the ground from a helicopter, which could pin point buried land mines.

The bullet units a radar pulse as it grounds to a halt. This pulse strikes the mine and its image gets available on the computer in the helicopter, offering a safe and efficient way of finding land mines

RADAR PRINCIPLE

Radar is Radio detection and ranging. Radar is a sensor. Radar makes use of radio waves to detect and locate objects. The purpose is to provide estimates of certain characteristics of its surroundings most commonly the presence, position and motion of aircrafts, ships and other vehicles.

Radar operates by transmitting electro magnetic energy into the surroundings and detecting energy reflected by object. If a narrow beam of this energy is transmitted by the directive antenna, the direction from which reflections come and hence the bearing of object may be estimated. .The distance to the reflecting object in estimated by measuring the period between the transmission of radar pulse and reception of echo. In radar bullet principle the change of medium by the waves must be taken into consideration.

Radars have generally from principal parts, the transmitter antenna receiver, and display.

The transmitter will transmit an electro magnetic signal through the antenna, which will hit the target and reflects back. The same antenna and the time difference between the signal transmission and reception is calculated, which will help up to measure the distance of the target from the radar.

EXPERIMENTAL SET UP

First of all a special bullet in fired downward into the ground , from a gun mounted on a helicopter flying about 100 m above the ground. The bullet in designed in such a way that it gives out powerful blast of radio waves from under the ground. The bullet will produce a pulse of radio waves as it pierces the ground and signal is reflected from any landmines within about a 15 meter radius will be detected by an antenna on the helicopter.

Once the mines are located they can be destroyed at once or there exact position are noted so they can be destroyed at once on their exact positions are noted so that can be diploid later. And if the bullet hits it, it would explode.

The Radar pulse is generated from the bullets kinetic energy by a process known as, “Magnetic flux compression.”

Mine Detection Using Radar Bullet

MAGNETIC FLUX COMPRESSION

Inside the bullet is a metal cylinder, surrounded by a tightly wounded coin of wire. As the bullet leaves the gun, there is a battery generating a magnetic field in the cylinder. When the bullet smashes into the ground ,the sudden deceleration forces the cylinder out from inside the coil. The sudden movement of the metal cylinder through the magnetic field induces a large pulse of current in the coil. The coil thus acts like an antenna converting the pulse into a short burst of high frequency radiation

FIELD TESTS

After the laboratory tests, tests where conducted at the Arizona desert. Using the same experiment set up, the radar bullet as able to detect 35 cm anti tank mines and Val Mara 69 anti personal mines, which are a particular problem in northern Iraq, where the mines have been laid by Saddam Hussein’s forces in their confrontation with the Kurds














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