without silicon is unbelievable, but it will come true with the evolution of Diamond
or Carbon chip. Now a day we are using silicon for the manufacturing of Electronic
Chip's. It has many disadvantages when it is used in power electronic applications,
such as bulk in size, slow operating speed etc. Carbon, Silicon and Germanium
are belonging to the same group in the periodic table. They have four valance
electrons in their outer shell. Pure Silicon and Germanium are semiconductors
in normal temperature. So in the earlier days they are used widely for the manufacturing
of electronic components. But later it is found that Germanium has many disadvantages
compared to silicon, such as large reverse current, less stability towards temperature
etc so in the industry focused in developing electronic components using silicon
research people found that Carbon is more advantages than Silicon. By using carbon
as the manufacturing material, we can achieve smaller, faster and stronger chips.
They are succeeded in making smaller prototypes of Carbon chip. They invented
a major component using carbon that is "CARBON NANOTUBE", which is widely
used in most modern microprocessors and it will be a major component in the Diamond
Diamond Chip Technology
In single definition, Diamond Chip or carbon Chip is an electronic
chip manufactured on a Diamond structural Carbon wafer. OR it can be also defined
as the electronic component manufactured using carbon as the wafer. The major
component using carbon is (cnt) Carbon Nanotube. Carbon Nanotube is a nano dimensional
made by using carbon. It has many unique properties.
IS IT POSSIBLE?
Pure Diamond structural carbon is non-conducting in nature.
In order to make it conducting we have to perform doping process. We are using
Boron as the p-type doping Agent and the Nitrogen as the n-type doping agent.
The doping process is similar to that in the case of Silicon chip manufacturing.
But this process will take more time compared with that of silicon because it
is very difficult to diffuse through strongly bonded diamond structure. CNT (Carbon
Nanotube) is already a semi conductor.
SMALLER COMPONENTS ARE POSSIBLE
As the size of the carbon atom is small compared with that of silicon atom, it
is possible to etch very smaller lines through diamond structural carbon. We can
realize a transistor whose size is one in hundredth of silicon transistor.
IT WORKS AT HIGHER TEMPERATURE
Diamond is very strongly bonded material. It can withstand higher temperatures
compared with that of silicon. At very high temperature, crystal structure of
the silicon will collapse. But diamond chip can function well in these elevated
temperatures. Diamond is very good conductor of heat. So if there is any heat
dissipation inside the chip, heat will very quickly transferred to the heat sink
or other cooling mechanics.
FASTER THAN SILICON CHIP
Carbon chip works faster than silicon chip. Mobility of the electrons inside the
doped diamond structural carbon is higher than that of in he silicon structure.
As the size of the silicon is higher than that of carbon, the chance of collision
of electrons with larger silicon atoms increases. But the carbon atom size is
small, so the chance of collision decreases. So the mobility of the charge carriers
is higher in doped diamond structural carbon compared with that of silicon.
LARGER POWER HANDLING CAPACITY
For power electronics application silicon is used, but it has many disadvantages
such as bulk in size, slow operating speed, less efficiency, lower band gap etc
at very high voltages silicon structure will collapse. Diamond has a strongly
bonded crystal structure. So carbon chip can work under high power environment.
It is assumed that a carbon transistor will deliver one watt of power at rate
of 100 GHZ. Now days in all power electronic circuits, we are using certain circuits
like relays, or MOSFET inter connection circuits (inverter circuits) for the purpose
of interconnecting a low power control circuit with a high power circuit .If we
are using carbon chip this inter phase is not needed. We can connect high power
circuit direct to the diamond chip