Concepts Of Shotcrete Technology
Shotcrete is the sprayed concrete, which was first used in Pennsylvania, USA in
1907 by Dr.Aneley. The technology is improving giving us enhanced comforts and the
task is completed with a greater economy in terms of both time and investment. This
innovative technology of shotcrete was introduced to make the work easier and
immediate where any alterations are to be made or any architectural effects are to be
Shortcreting has proved to be the best method for construction of curved surfaces.
Domes are now much easier to construct with the advent of shotcrete technology. Tunnel
linings are also becoming easy with this technology. Not only are these but there a wide
range of applications where this technology has been a leading one.
This technical paper includes the concept of shotcrete and how it differs from
conventional concrete. It also enumerates the different types of process involved in
shotcreting i.e. dry mix process and wet mix process. Advantages of shotcrete and its
applications in various fields like tunneling, canals, buildings etc. are specified in detail.
This paper presents an overview of shotcreteing technology along with its applications.
Shotcrete Versus Conventional Concrete
Unlike conventional concrete, which is first placed and then compacted in the
second operation, shotcrete undergoes placement and compaction at the same time due to
the force with which it is projected from the nozzle.
Shotcrete is more dense, homogeneous, strong, and waterproof than is possible to
obtain by any other process. For most bridges original concrete will require additional
repair long before shotcrete needs repair and it suffers little detoriations.
Shotcrete is not placed or contained by forms. It can be impacted onto any type or
shape of surface, including vertical or overhead areas. It forms an excellent bond with the
substrate and can be given a variety of surface finishes.
Classifications Of Shotcrete
There are two classifications of shotcrete namely-
1. Dry process 2. Wet process
They are discussed below.
DRY PROCESS - AN OVERVIEW:-
Working of dry process proceeds as per the following steps:
Step1: Pre blended, dry or semi-dampened materials are placed into shotcrete equipment
and metered into a hose.
Step2: Compressed air conveys materials at high velocity to the nozzle where the water is
Step3: Then the material is consolidated on receiving surface by high impact velocity.
The dry process can be used for any shotcreting applications from the smallest
patching and sealing works to largest projects like tunnel linings, pools, canal linings or
reservoirs. The maximum production achievable with dry process equipment ranges from
10-12 yards per hour of dry mix depending on the conditions. To achieve ultimate
capacity it is necessary to use 2”-2.5” hose and larger compressors. Most applications
have production rates of 2-6 cubic yards per hour of mix. Patching and sealing are done
at even low rates by employing 1”-1.5” hoses.
In dry process rebound and over spray should be considered.
ADVANTAGES OF DRY PROCESS:-
Easy start up, shutdown and clean up.
Control of materials is on site.
Nozzle man can be up to 1000ft horizontally or 500ft vertically from the gun.
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