Published on Jan 19, 2016
The study of systems that are open to energy but closed to information and control-systems that are information tight is called as Cybernetics.Cybernetics takes as its domain the design or discovery and application of principles of regulation and communication. Cybernetics treats not things but ways of behaving.
Several traditions in cybernetics have existed side by side since its beginning. One is concerned with circular causality, manifest in technological developments,notably in the design of computers and automata and finds its intellectual expression in theories of computation, regulation and control. Another tradition, which emerged from human and social concerns, emphasizes epistemology ,how we come to know and explores theories of self-reference to understand such phenomena as autonomy, identity, and purpose. Some cyberneticians seek to create a more humane world, while others seek merely to understand how people and their environment have co-evolved. Some are interested in systems as we observe them, others in systems that do the observing.
Some seek to develop methods for modeling the relationships among measurable variables. Others aim to understand the dialogue that occurs between models or theories and social systems. Early work sought to define and apply principles by which systems may be controlled. More recent work has attempted to understand how systems describe themselves, control themselves, and organize themselves. Despite its short history, cybernetics has developed a concern with a wide range of processes involving people as active organizers, as sharing communicators, and as autonomous, responsible individuals.
Cybernetics seeks to develop general theories of communication within complex systems.The abstract and often formal mathematical nature of its aim makes cybernetics applicable to any empirical domain in which processes of communication and their numerous correlates occur. Applications of cybernetics are widespread, notably In the computer and information sciences, in the natural and social sciences, in politics, education and management.
Cybernetics studies the flow of information round a system, and the way in which this information is used by the system as a means of controlling itself: it does this for animate and inanimate systems indifferently. For cybernetics is an interdisciplinary science, owing as much to biology as to physics, as much to the study of the brain as to the study of computers, and owing also a great deal to the formal languages of science for providing tools with which the behaviour of all these systems can be objectively described.
Cybernetics is a science of purposeful behavior. It helps us explain behavior as the continuous action of someone in the process, as we see it, of maintaining certain conditions near a goal state, or purpose.
At the very least , cybernetics implies a new philosophy about
(1) what we can know,
(2) about what it means for something to exist, and
(3) about how to get things done.
Cybernetics implies that knowledge is to be built up through effective goal-seeking processes, and perhaps not necessarily in uncovering timless, absolute, attributes of things, irrespective of our purposes and needs
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