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Do Cloth Masks Protect Against Covid? : Covid 19 Symptoms, Prevention and Measures


Published on May 31, 2020

Do Cloth Masks Protect Against Covid? : Covid 19 Symptoms, Prevention and Measures

Do Cloth Masks Protect Against Covid? : COVID-19 is the infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered corona virus. This new virus and disease were unknown before the outbreak began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019.

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV).

Standard recommendations to prevent infection spread include regular hand washing, covering mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing, thoroughly cooking meat and eggs. Avoid close contact with anyone showing symptoms of respiratory illness such as coughing and sneezing..

Use of Masks

Wearing a medical mask is one of the prevention measures to limit spread of certain respiratory diseases, including COVID-19, in affected areas. However, the use of a mask alone is insufficient to provide an adequate level of protection and other equally relevant measures should be adopted.

If worn properly, a facemask helps block respiratory secretions produced by the wearer from contaminating other persons and surfaces (often called source control). (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020). If masks are to be used, this measure must be combined with hand hygiene and other infection and prevention control measures to prevent the human-to- human transmission of COVID-19.

The WHO recommends that health care workers should:

• Wear a medical mask when entering a room where patients suspected or confirmed of being infected with COVID-19 are admitted and in any situation of care provided to a suspected or confirmed case;

• Use a particulate respirator at least as protective as a US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-certified N95, European Union (EU) standard FFP2, or equivalent, when performing aerosol- generating procedures such as tracheal intubation, non-invasive ventilation, tracheotomy, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, manual ventilation before intubation and bronchoscopy. (World Health Organization, 2020)

The USA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs) have issued guidance on the three key factors for a respirator to be effective:

1. The respirator must be put on correctly and worn during the exposure.

2. The respirator must fit snugly against the user’s face to ensure that there are no gaps between the user’s skin and respirator seal.

3. The respirator filter must capture more than 95% of the particles from the air that passes through it. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020)

When to use a mask

• If you are healthy, you only need to wear a mask if you are taking care of a person with suspected COVID-19 infection.

• Wear a mask if you are coughing or sneezing.

• Masks are effective only when used in combination with frequent hand-cleaning with alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water.

• If you wear a mask, then you must know how to use it and dispose of it properly. (World Health Organization, 2020)


How to put on, use, take off and dispose of a mask

1. Remember, a mask should be used by health workers, care givers, and individuals with respiratory symptoms, such as fever and cough.

2. Before touching the mask, clean hands with an alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water

3. Take the mask and inspect it for tears and holes.

4. Orient which side is the top side (where the metal strip is).

5. Ensure the proper side of the mask faces outwards (the coloured side).

6. Place the mask to your face. Pinch the metal strip or stiff edge of the mask so it moulds to the shape of your nose.

7. Pull down the mask’s bottom so it covers your mouth and chin.

8. After use, take off the mask; remove the elastic loops from behind the ears while keeping the mask away from your face and clothes, to avoid touching potentially contaminated surfaces of the mask.

9. Discard the mask in a closed bin immediately after use.

10. Perform hand hygiene after touching or discarding the mask. Use alcohol-based hand rub or, if they are visibly soiled, wash your hands with soap and water (World Health Organization, 2020)

Corona Masks

Live Update USA : Corona Cases Till Now 31th May 2020

Total Cases

1,803,766

Deaths :

104,995

Recovered :

520,996

Serious :

17,205

State
Total Cases
Total Deaths
Active Cases

USA Total

1,593,039

94,941

1,127,286

New York

364,249

28,758

272,484

New Jersey

152,096

10,747

134,311

Illinois

100,418

4,525

95,782

Massachusetts

88,970

6,066

55,092

California

85,893

3,512

66,443

Pennsylvania

68,151

4,822

56,473

Michigan

53,009

5,060

19,715

Texas

51,651

1,423

19,852

Florida

47,471

2,096

37,737

Maryland

42,323

2,123

37,394

Georgia

39,801

1,697

37,764

Connecticut

39,017

3,529

29,224

Louisiana

35,316

2,608

6,459

Virginia

32,908

1,074

27,563

Ohio

29,436

1,781

22,741

Indiana

29,274

1,864

25,541

Colorado

22,797

1,299

20,007

North Carolina

20,261

726

7,898

Washington

19,822

1,036

13,603

Tennessee

18,532

309

6,440

Minnesota

17,670

786

4,657

Iowa

15,620

393

6,808

Arizona

14,897

747

14,080

Wisconsin

13,413

481

5,204

Rhode Island

13,356

538

11,932

Alabama

13,052

522

12,510

Mississippi

11,967

570

3,716

Missouri

11,513

644

7,904

Nebraska

11,122

138

10,635

South Carolina

9,175

407

2,725

Kansas

8,504

202

5,501

Delaware

8,194

310

3,919

Kentucky

8,167

376

4,872

Utah

7,710

90

3,437

District Of Columbia

7,551

407

6,085

Nevada

7,166

373

1,754

New Mexico

6,317

283

4,049

Oklahoma

5,532

299

967

Arkansas

5,003

107

1,044

South Dakota

4,177

46

1,108

New Hampshire

3,868

190

2,403

Oregon

3,801

144

2,251

Idaho

2,506

77

1,050

North Dakota

2,095

49

744

Maine

1,819

73

636

West Virginia

1,567

69

521

Vermont

944

54

66

Wyoming

787

11

242

Hawaii

643

17

48

Montana

478

16

22

Alaska

402

10

40

Guam

154

5

18

Northern Mariana Islands

21

2

6

Puerto Rico

2,866

125

1,891

United States Virgin Islands

69

6

2

Veteran Affairs

12,720

1,083

2,427

US Military

8,764

29

4,228

Navajo Nation

4,253

146

4,107

Federal Prisons

3,629

58

1,005

Grand Princess Ship

103

3

100

Wuhan Repatriated

3

3

Diamond Princess Ship

46

46

Total:

1,593,039

94,941

1,127,286

 

Signs and Symptoms of COVID 19

Although those infected with the virus may be asymptomatic, many develop flu-like symptoms including fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Emergency symptoms including difficulty breathing, persistent chest pain or pressure, confusion, difficulty waking, and bluish face or lips; immediate medical attention is advised if these symptoms are present. Less commonly, upper respiratory symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, or sore throat may be seen. Symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea are seen in a minority of cases, and some of the initial cases in China presented with only chest tightness and palpitations. In some, the disease may progress to pneumonia, multi-organ failure, and death.

As is common with infections, there is a delay from when a person is infected with the virus to when they develop symptoms, known as the incubation period. The incubation period for COVID-19 is typically five to six days but may range from two to fourteen days

Cause of COVID 19

The disease is caused by the virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), previously referred to as the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). It is primarily spread between people via respiratory droplets from coughs and sneezes. The virus can remain viable for up to three days on plastic and stainless steel, and for three hours in aerosols . The virus has also been found in faeces, but as of March 2020 it is unknown whether transmission through faeces is possible, and the risk is expected to be low.

The lungs are the organs most affected by COVID-19 because the virus accesses host cells via the enzyme ACE2, which is most abundant in the type II alveolar cells of the lungs. The virus uses a special surface glycoprotein, called "spike", to connect to ACE2 and enter the host cell. The density of ACE2 in each tissue correlates with the severity of the disease in that tissue and some have suggested that decreasing ACE2 activity might be protective, though another view is that increasing ACE2 using Angiotensin II receptor blocker medications could be protective and that these hypotheses need to be tested. As the alveolar disease progresses, respiratory failure might develop and death may follow.

The virus is thought to be natural and have an animal origin, through spillover infection. It was first transmitted to humans in Wuhan, China, in November or December 2019, and the primary source of infection became human-to-human transmission by early January 2020. The earliest known infection occurred on 17 November 2019

Prevention

Because a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 is not expected to become available until 2021 at the earliest, a key part of managing the COVID-19 pandemic is trying to decrease the epidemic peak, known as flattening the epidemic curve through various measures seeking to reduce the rate of new infections. Slowing the infection rate helps decrease the risk of health services being overwhelmed, allowing for better treatment of current cases, and provides more time for a vaccine and treatment to be developed.

Preventive measures to reduce the chances of infection in locations with an outbreak of the disease are similar to those published for other coronaviruses: stay home, avoid travel and public activities, wash hands with soap and warm water often and for at least 20 seconds (proper hand hygiene and also the time it takes to sing "Happy Birthday to You" twice.), practice good respiratory hygiene and avoid touching the eyes, nose, or mouth with unwashed hands. The CDC recommends covering up the mouth and nose with a tissue during any cough or sneeze and coughing or sneezing into the inside of the elbow if no tissue is available. They also recommend proper hand hygiene after any cough or sneeze. Social distancing strategies aim to reduce contact of infected persons with large groups by closing schools and workplaces, restricting travel, and canceling mass gatherings. Social distancing also includes that people stay 6 feet apart (about 1.80 meters), roughly the length of a full size bed/mattress

According to the WHO, the use of masks is only recommended if a person is coughing or sneezing or when one is taking care of someone with a suspected infection.

To prevent transmission of the virus, the CDC recommends that infected individuals stay home except to get medical care, call ahead before visiting a healthcare provider, wear a face mask when exposed to an individual or location of a suspected infection, cover coughs and sneezes with a tissue, regularly wash hands with soap and water and avoid sharing personal household items. The CDC also recommends that individuals wash hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after going to the toilet or when hands are visibly dirty, before eating and after blowing one's nose, coughing, or sneezing. It further recommended using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol, but only when soap and water are not readily available. For remote areas where commercial hand sanitizers are not readily available, WHO suggested two formulations for the local production. In both of these formulations the antimicrobial activity of ethanol or isopropanol is enhanced by low concentration of hydrogen peroxide while glycerol acts as a humectant. The WHO advises individuals to avoid touching the eyes, nose, or mouth with unwashed hands. Spitting in public places also should be avoided

Social Distancing is a non-pharmaceutical infection prevention and control intervention implemented to avoid/decrease contact between those who are infected with a disease causing pathogen and those who are not, so as to stop or slow down the rate and extent of disease transmission in a community. This eventually leads to decrease in spread, morbidity and mortality due to the disease. In addition to the proposed interventions, the State/UT Governments may prescribe such other measures as they consider necessary.


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