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How Did Covid 19 Get Started? : Covid 19 Symptoms, Prevention and Measures


Published on May 31, 2020

How Did Covid 19 Get Started? : Covid 19 Symptoms, Prevention and Measures

How Did Covid 19 Get Started? : According to current evidence, COVID-19 virus is primarily transmitted between people through respiratory droplets and contact routes. In an analysis of 75,465 COVID-19 cases in China, airborne transmission was not reported.

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV).

Standard recommendations to prevent infection spread include regular hand washing, covering mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing, thoroughly cooking meat and eggs. Avoid close contact with anyone showing symptoms of respiratory illness such as coughing and sneezing..

How Covid 19 Get Started?

In December 2019, a cluster of pneumonia cases, caused by a newly identified β-coronavirus, occurred in Wuhan, China. This coronavirus, was initially named as the 2019- novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) on 12 January 2020 by World Health Organization (WHO). WHO officially named the disease as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) and Coronavirus Study Group (CSG) of the International Committee proposed to name the new coronavirus as SARS-CoV-2, both issued on 11 February 2020. The Chinese scientists rapidly isolated a SARS-CoV-2 from a patient within a short time on 7 January 2020 and came out to genome sequencing of the SARS-CoV-2 . As of 1 March 2020, a total of 79,968 cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed in mainland China including 2873 deaths . Studies estimated the basic reproduction number (R0) of SARS-CoV-2 to be around 2.2 , or even more (range from 1.4 to 6.5) , and familial clusters of pneumonia outbreaks add to evidence of the epidemic COVID-19 steadily growing by human-to-human transmission.

Jan. 11, 2020: China reports 1st novel coronavirus death

Chinese state media reports the first death from novel coronavirus, a 61-year-old man who had visited the live animal market in Wuhan.

Jan. 21, 2020: 1st confirmed case in the United States

A man in his 30s from Washington state, who traveled to Wuhan, is diagnosed with novel coronavirus. Japan, South Korea and Thailand also report their first cases one day prior.

Jan. 23, 2020: China imposes strict lockdown in Wuhan

China imposes aggressive containment measures in Wuhan, the epicenter of the outbreak, suspending flights and trains and shutting down subways, buses and ferries in an attempt to stem the spread of the virus.

Jan. 30, 2020: WHO declares global health emergency

For the sixth time in history, the World Health Organization declares a "public health emergency of international concern," a designation reserved for extraordinary events that threaten to spread internationally.

Feb. 5, 2020: Diamond Princess cruise ship quarantined

More than 3,600 passengers are quarantined on a cruise ship off the coast of Yokohama, Japan, while passengers and crew undergo health screenings. The number of confirmed cases on board the ship would eventually swell to more than 700, making it one of the largest outbreaks outside of China.

Feb. 11, 2020: Novel coronavirus renamed COVID-19

The WHO announces that novel coronavirus' formal new name is COVID-19. "Co" stands for coronavirus, "Vi" is for virus and "D" is for disease. Health officials purposely avoid naming COVID-19 after a geographical location, animal or group of people, so as not to stigmatize people or places.

Feb. 26, 2020: 1st case of suspected local transmission in United States

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirms the first case of COVID-19 in a patient in California with no travel history to an outbreak area, nor contact with anyone diagnosed with the virus. It's suspected to be the first instance of local transmission in the United States. Oregon, Washington and New York soon report their own cases of possible community transmission.

Feb. 29, 2020: 1st death reported in United States


The first COVID-19 death is reported in Washington state, after a man with no travel history to China dies on Feb. 28 at Evergreen Health Medical Center in Kirkland, Washington. Two deaths that occurred Feb. 26 at a nearby nursing home would later be recorded as the first COVID-19 deaths to occur in the United States.

March 3, 2020: CDC lifts restrictions for virus testing

The CDC issues new guidance that allows anyone to be tested for the virus without restriction. Previously, only those who had traveled to an outbreak area, who had close contact with people diagnosed with COVID-19, or those with severe symptoms, could get tested.

Implications of recent findings of detection of COVID-19 virus from air sampling

To date, some scientific publications provide initial evidence on whether the COVID-19 virus can be detected in the air and thus, some news outlets have suggested that there has been airborne transmission. These initial findings need to be interpreted carefully.

A recent publication in the New England Journal of Medicine has evaluated virus persistence of the COVID-19 virus.10 In this experimental study, aerosols were generated using a three-jet Collison nebulizer and fed into a Goldberg drum under controlled laboratory conditions. This is a high-powered machine that does not reflect normal human cough conditions. Further, the finding of COVID-19 virus in aerosol particles up to 3 hours does not reflect a clinical setting in which aerosol-generating procedures are performed—that is, this was an experimentally induced aerosol-generating procedure.

There are reports from settings where symptomatic COVID-19 patients have been admitted and in which no COVID-19 RNA was detected in air samples. WHO is aware of other studies which have evaluated the presence of COVID-19 RNA in air samples, but which are not yet published in peer-reviewed journals. It is important to note that the detection of RNA in environmental samples based on PCR-based assays is not indicative of viable virus that could be transmissible. Further studies are needed to determine whether it is possible to detect COVID-19 virus in air samples from patient rooms where no procedures or support treatments that generate aerosols are ongoing. As evidence emerges, it is important to know whether viable virus is found and what role it may play in transmission.

Live Update USA : Cases Till Now 31th May 2020

Total Cases

1,803,766

Deaths :

104,995

Recovered :

520,996

Serious :

17,205

State
Total Cases
Total Deaths
Active Cases

USA Total

1,593,039

94,941

1,127,286

New York

364,249

28,758

272,484

New Jersey

152,096

10,747

134,311

Illinois

100,418

4,525

95,782

Massachusetts

88,970

6,066

55,092

California

85,893

3,512

66,443

Pennsylvania

68,151

4,822

56,473

Michigan

53,009

5,060

19,715

Texas

51,651

1,423

19,852

Florida

47,471

2,096

37,737

Maryland

42,323

2,123

37,394

Georgia

39,801

1,697

37,764

Connecticut

39,017

3,529

29,224

Louisiana

35,316

2,608

6,459

Virginia

32,908

1,074

27,563

Ohio

29,436

1,781

22,741

Indiana

29,274

1,864

25,541

Colorado

22,797

1,299

20,007

North Carolina

20,261

726

7,898

Washington

19,822

1,036

13,603

Tennessee

18,532

309

6,440

Minnesota

17,670

786

4,657

Iowa

15,620

393

6,808

Arizona

14,897

747

14,080

Wisconsin

13,413

481

5,204

Rhode Island

13,356

538

11,932

Alabama

13,052

522

12,510

Mississippi

11,967

570

3,716

Missouri

11,513

644

7,904

Nebraska

11,122

138

10,635

South Carolina

9,175

407

2,725

Kansas

8,504

202

5,501

Delaware

8,194

310

3,919

Kentucky

8,167

376

4,872

Utah

7,710

90

3,437

District Of Columbia

7,551

407

6,085

Nevada

7,166

373

1,754

New Mexico

6,317

283

4,049

Oklahoma

5,532

299

967

Arkansas

5,003

107

1,044

South Dakota

4,177

46

1,108

New Hampshire

3,868

190

2,403

Oregon

3,801

144

2,251

Idaho

2,506

77

1,050

North Dakota

2,095

49

744

Maine

1,819

73

636

West Virginia

1,567

69

521

Vermont

944

54

66

Wyoming

787

11

242

Hawaii

643

17

48

Montana

478

16

22

Alaska

402

10

40

Guam

154

5

18

Northern Mariana Islands

21

2

6

Puerto Rico

2,866

125

1,891

United States Virgin Islands

69

6

2

Veteran Affairs

12,720

1,083

2,427

US Military

8,764

29

4,228

Navajo Nation

4,253

146

4,107

Federal Prisons

3,629

58

1,005

Grand Princess Ship

103

3

100

Wuhan Repatriated

3

3

Diamond Princess Ship

46

46

Total:

1,593,039

94,941

1,127,286

 

Signs and Symptoms of COVID 19

Although those infected with the virus may be asymptomatic, many develop flu-like symptoms including fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Emergency symptoms including difficulty breathing, persistent chest pain or pressure, confusion, difficulty waking, and bluish face or lips; immediate medical attention is advised if these symptoms are present. Less commonly, upper respiratory symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, or sore throat may be seen. Symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea are seen in a minority of cases, and some of the initial cases in China presented with only chest tightness and palpitations. In some, the disease may progress to pneumonia, multi-organ failure, and death.

As is common with infections, there is a delay from when a person is infected with the virus to when they develop symptoms, known as the incubation period. The incubation period for COVID-19 is typically five to six days but may range from two to fourteen days

Cause of COVID 19

The disease is caused by the virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), previously referred to as the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). It is primarily spread between people via respiratory droplets from coughs and sneezes. The virus can remain viable for up to three days on plastic and stainless steel, and for three hours in aerosols . The virus has also been found in faeces, but as of March 2020 it is unknown whether transmission through faeces is possible, and the risk is expected to be low.

The lungs are the organs most affected by COVID-19 because the virus accesses host cells via the enzyme ACE2, which is most abundant in the type II alveolar cells of the lungs. The virus uses a special surface glycoprotein, called "spike", to connect to ACE2 and enter the host cell. The density of ACE2 in each tissue correlates with the severity of the disease in that tissue and some have suggested that decreasing ACE2 activity might be protective, though another view is that increasing ACE2 using Angiotensin II receptor blocker medications could be protective and that these hypotheses need to be tested. As the alveolar disease progresses, respiratory failure might develop and death may follow.

The virus is thought to be natural and have an animal origin, through spillover infection. It was first transmitted to humans in Wuhan, China, in November or December 2019, and the primary source of infection became human-to-human transmission by early January 2020. The earliest known infection occurred on 17 November 2019

Prevention

Because a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 is not expected to become available until 2021 at the earliest, a key part of managing the COVID-19 pandemic is trying to decrease the epidemic peak, known as flattening the epidemic curve through various measures seeking to reduce the rate of new infections. Slowing the infection rate helps decrease the risk of health services being overwhelmed, allowing for better treatment of current cases, and provides more time for a vaccine and treatment to be developed.

Preventive measures to reduce the chances of infection in locations with an outbreak of the disease are similar to those published for other coronaviruses: stay home, avoid travel and public activities, wash hands with soap and warm water often and for at least 20 seconds (proper hand hygiene and also the time it takes to sing "Happy Birthday to You" twice.), practice good respiratory hygiene and avoid touching the eyes, nose, or mouth with unwashed hands. The CDC recommends covering up the mouth and nose with a tissue during any cough or sneeze and coughing or sneezing into the inside of the elbow if no tissue is available. They also recommend proper hand hygiene after any cough or sneeze. Social distancing strategies aim to reduce contact of infected persons with large groups by closing schools and workplaces, restricting travel, and canceling mass gatherings. Social distancing also includes that people stay 6 feet apart (about 1.80 meters), roughly the length of a full size bed/mattress

According to the WHO, the use of masks is only recommended if a person is coughing or sneezing or when one is taking care of someone with a suspected infection.

To prevent transmission of the virus, the CDC recommends that infected individuals stay home except to get medical care, call ahead before visiting a healthcare provider, wear a face mask when exposed to an individual or location of a suspected infection, cover coughs and sneezes with a tissue, regularly wash hands with soap and water and avoid sharing personal household items. The CDC also recommends that individuals wash hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after going to the toilet or when hands are visibly dirty, before eating and after blowing one's nose, coughing, or sneezing. It further recommended using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol, but only when soap and water are not readily available. For remote areas where commercial hand sanitizers are not readily available, WHO suggested two formulations for the local production. In both of these formulations the antimicrobial activity of ethanol or isopropanol is enhanced by low concentration of hydrogen peroxide while glycerol acts as a humectant. The WHO advises individuals to avoid touching the eyes, nose, or mouth with unwashed hands. Spitting in public places also should be avoided

Social Distancing is a non-pharmaceutical infection prevention and control intervention implemented to avoid/decrease contact between those who are infected with a disease causing pathogen and those who are not, so as to stop or slow down the rate and extent of disease transmission in a community. This eventually leads to decrease in spread, morbidity and mortality due to the disease. In addition to the proposed interventions, the State/UT Governments may prescribe such other measures as they consider necessary.


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