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PPT : 64 bit Computing Seminar with Free Download

Published on Apr 02, 2024


Slide 1 :



64 bit Computing

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==> The labels "16-bit," "32-bit" or "64-bit," when applied to a microprocessor, characterize the processor's data stream.

==> Although you may have heard the term "64-bit code," this designates code that operates on 64-bit data.

==> In more specific terms, the labels "64-bit," 32-bit," etc. designate the number of bits that each of the processor's general-purpose registers (GPRs) can hold.

==> So when someone uses the term "64-bit processor," what they mean is "a processor with GPRs that store 64-bit numbers.“

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What is 64-bit computing?

==> Figure

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Dynamic range

==> The main thing that a wider integer gives you is increased dynamic range.

==> In the base-10 number system to which we're all accustomed, you can represent a maximum of ten integers (0 to 9) with a single digit.

==> To represent more than ten integers you need to add another digit, using a combination of two symbols chosen from among the set of ten to represent any one of 100 integers

==> Similarly, a 3-bit binary number gives you eight possible combinations, which you can use to represent eight different integers

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Explicit parallelism


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==> There are two kinds of speculation: data and control.

With the speculation, the compiler advances an operation in a way that its latency (time spent) is removed from the critical way.

==> The speculation is a form of allowing the compiler to avoid that slow operations spoil the parallelism of the instructions.

==> Control speculation is the execution of an operation before the branch that precedes it.

==> On the other hand, data speculation is the execution of a memory load before a storage operation (store) that precedes it and with which it can be related

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Speculation Benefits

==> Reduces impact of memory latency .Reduces impact of memory latency

==> Performance improvement at 79% when combined with predication
==> Greatest improvement to code with many cache accesses large databases and operating systems.ems

==> Scheduling flexibility enables new levels of performance headroom

Slide 8 :

Rotating Registers

==> With rotation, Itanium can shift up to 96 of its general-purpose registers (the first 32 are still fixed and global) by one or more apparent positions

==> Itanium's register-rotation feature is less generic than all-purpose register renaming like Athlon's, so it's easier to implement and faster to execute.

==> Chip-wide register renaming like Athlon's adds gobs of multiplexers, adders, and routing, one of the big drawbacks of a massively out-of-order machine.

==> So IA-64 has two levels of indirection for its own registers: the logical-to-virtual mapping of the frames and the virtual-to-physical mapping of the rotation.

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==> It is important to mention that there already are computers running 64-bit versions of Windows and Linux.

==> Now, more than performance, our biggest concern is the compatibility with our present programs.

==> We really have to verify how much those 64-bit architectures are compatible with our 32- or 16-bit programs.

==> We hope that in less than a year we already have the answer to this question.

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