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Development of NSC and HSC Using Laterite Soil as a Replacement to Sand

Published on Nov 30, 2023


In developing countries, mining and dredging regulations are often established without scientific understanding of the consequences, and projects are carried out without environmental impact assessments.

One way to reduce consumption of sand is to optimize the use of existing buildings and infrastructure. Substitutes for sand are available. As per the investigations carried out, Laterite soil can be used to replace sand in general concrete structures.

Utoeyo et al in 2015 replaced laterite soil to sand by 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80,100% and got maximum compressive strength at 40% replacement, sabarish et al in 2015 studied the strength and durability parameters of laterized concrete which showed a better durability and compressive strength at lesser % of replacement.

Compressive strength decreases with increase in laterite content and water absorption increases with increase in laterite %[3]. The increase in water cement ratio causes reduction effect on the compressive strength of both conventional and laterized concrete [5].

In this project fine aggregate is replaced with laterite soil from 15-30% at an intervals of 5%

In both NSC and HSC. As per the results observed, compressive strength was increased up to certain limits of replacement there after it decreased. Split tensile strength decreased with increase in percentage of laterite soil.

Keywords : laterite soil; compressive strength; tensile strength; Laterized concrete


The main aim of the project is to develop NSC & HSC in which laterite soil is used as a replacement to sand. Based on the available literature survey the objectives derived are as follows.

1. Development of concrete mix using laterite soil.

2. Increasing the strength of concrete.

3. Studying the fresh and hardened properties of concrete with laterite soil.

4. To demonstrate laterite soil as economical replacement to sand due to the regional availability.



The strength of the concrete is based on the properties of its materials used. The basic ingredients used in current work are

1. Cement

2. Fine aggregate

3. Coarse aggregate

4. Water

5. Laterite soil


1. OPC 43 grade cement confirming to IS: 8112-1989 has been considered with the designed strength of 28 days having minimum of 43 MPa or 430 kg/sqcm.

2. The coarse aggregates used were of 20mm downsize.

3. The fine aggregates used were in compliance to zone ІІ according to IS: 383-1970.

4. Potable water of pH range in between 5 to 8 is used.

5. Laterite soil was excavated and collected from the construction site from depth of 2 meter from the ground surface.

6. The quantity of aggregate, cement, and water for every batch would be strong-minded by mass (weight batching).


Basic tests for all the materials have been done i.e.

Cement : specific gravity, fineness, normal consistency

Fine aggregate : specific gravity, Water absorption test, Water content

Coarse aggregate : specific gravity, Water absorption test, Water content

Laterite soil : specific gravity, Water absorption test, Water content


Experimental data’s was obtained by conducting basic tests on the material and it was tabulated and the mix design was assessed as per the regulations of IS code 10262-2009


Slump test for M30 and M60 grade concrete had been carried out.


The concrete mix was prepared in a lab batch blender, in a manner so as to avoid the loss of water or any other ingredients. Each batch of concrete would be of such a mass so as to run off about 10% more moulding than the required figure of experiment specimen.


The casted concrete cubes and cylinders were soaked in curing tanks for 3, 7, 28 & 56 days. Room temperature was maintained throughout the curing process.

Future Work:

In the present experimental work, the rheological characteristic of laterised concrete is satisfactory and the hardness properties like compressive strength is slightly increased and tensile strength decreased. With this regard the future study can be done on,

1. The characteristics of concrete at later ages around 90 days can be studied.

2. The study on property of concrete by replacing laterite soil upto 100%.

3. Investigation can be done by using fine laterite soil as a partial replacement to cement.

4. It is desirable to study the development of high strength concrete more than M60 grade concrete.



It is observed that the slump decreases as the percentage of the laterite soil increases.


1. Result showed that as the age increases the compressive strength increases and the maximum compressive strength is obtained at 15% replacement of laterite. It is even observed that the compressive strength increased at the later stage also. This may be attributed because of the triggered hydration process at later ages.
2. It is noted that the tensile strength of Laterized concrete mixes keeps on decreasing as the percentage of laterite addition increases.

Project Done By Mr. Avinashkumar, Mr. Sarthak R, Mr. Srujan K M, Mr. Sunil Y L