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Nanotechnology


Published on Dec 12, 2015

Abstract

Nanotechnology is defined as fabrication of devices with atomic or molecular scale precision. Devices with minimum feature sizes less than 100 nanometers (nm) are considered to be products of nanotechnology. A nanometer is one billionth of a meter (10-9 m) and is the unit of length that is generally most appropriate for describing the size of single molecules.

The nanoscale marks the nebulous boundary between the classical and quantum mechanical worlds; thus, realization of nanotechnology promises to bring revolutionary capabilities. Fabrication of nanomachines, nanoelectronics and other nanodevices will undoubtedly solve an enormous amount of the problems faced by mankind today.

Nanotechnology is currently in a very infantile stage. However, we now have the ability to organize matter on the atomic scale and there are already numerous products available as a direct result of our rapidly increasing ability to fabricate and characterize feature sizes less than 100 nm. Mirrors that don't fog, biomimetic paint with a contact angle near 180°, gene chips and fat soluble vitamins in aqueous beverages are some of the first manifestations of nanotechnology. However, immenant breakthroughs in computer science and medicine will be where the real potential of nanotechnology will first be achieved.

Nanoscience is an interdisciplinary field that seeks to bring about mature nanotechnology. Focusing on the nanoscale intersection of fields such as physics, biology, engineering, chemistry, computer science and more, nanoscience is rapidly expanding. Nanotechnology centers are popping up around the world as more funding is provided and nanotechnology market share increases. The rapid progress is apparent by the increasing appearance of the prefix "nano" in scientific journals and the news. Thus, as we increase our ability to fabricate computer chips with smaller features and improve our ability to cure disease at the molecular level, nanotechnology is here.

History of Nanotechnology

The amount of space available to us for information storage (or other uses) is enormous. As first described in a lecture titled, 'There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom' in 1959 by Richard P. Feynman, there is nothing besides our clumsy size that keeps us from using this space. In his time, it was not possible for us to manipulate single atoms or molecules because they were far too small for our tools. Thus, his speech was completely theoretical and seemingly fantastic. He described how the laws of physics do not limit our ability to manipulate single atoms and molecules. Instead, it was our lack of the appropriate methods for doing so. However, he correctly predicted that the time would come in which atomically precise manipulation of matter would inevitably arrive.

Prof. Feynman described such atomic scale fabrication as a bottom-up approach, as opposed to the top-down approach that we are accustomed to. The current top-down method for manufacturing involves the construction of parts through methods such as cutting, carving and molding.

Uses of Nanotechnology and Materials needed

The problem with today’s computer technology is that the speed of the chips has a certain limit. A limit that could stop the whole industry. As with all things all fun has a ending point and with CPUs that limit is becoming very near. But not with NanoTechnology. It can boost it up 1000's or Billions of times faster. There will be a no end into NT.

It can also be used in space. Right now all we can build are technology that someday will decinarate with wearing and it requires a lot of repairing. With NT all that will be changed. Spacecraft can be 1000's of time stronger, faster and lighter. Plus it will require minimal repairing and maintenance because NT lasts longer. The things you see in StarWars will someday become true. Or the things you see in video games with all the coolgad gets that too will become a near reality.

Well that could be possible thanks to NT. There’s a artificial immune system scientist are trying to develop called a Nanite. It's a machine that patrols your body searching for any foreign invaders and destroying it. It kills any deadly viruses including aids. It can do plastic surgery as well, except no pain. People can shape their own bodies, sex changes and man can have babies.

It can also create immortality where the human body never dies. Also painless births. But where does this lead to over population? Do they have to set up laws how long you have live before you are killed to avoid over population? Or can we move to other planets with perfect immune systems and live there? For such a event to be success certain Nano materials must be used. How will we react if one day a super Nano material that was 100 times stronger than steel yet 1/6 of the weight? How will this change the industry and how we do production. It would be a enormous invention that affects everyone.

NanoTechnology as you already know is building objects molecule by molecule, atom by atom. A nanometer is a billionth of a meter. We can never build a Nan product so scientist are building a Nanoscopic Robot. One of the important materials that scientist will use is carbon. It can stand the hottest temperature and can be mixed with other materials to make it thousands of times stronger. Diamond another super Nano material. So strong it can drive through the strongest steel. What happens when you fit millions of them together in a single atom? How strong will that be? All NanoTechnology is, is fitting strong or weak materials together and making it 1000's of times stronger, lighter and more efficient.

Hypothetical applications and capabilities

 Smart Materials and Nanosensors

One application of nanotechnology is the development of so-called smart materials. This term refers to any sort of material designed and engineered at the nanometer scale to perform a specific task, and encompasses a wide variety of possible commercial applications. One example is materials designed to respond differently to various molecules; such a capability could lead, for example, to artificial drugs which would recognize and render inert specific viruses. Another is the idea of self-healing structures, which would repair small tears in a surface naturally in the same way as self-sealing tires or human skin; and while this technology is relatively new, it is already seeing commercial application in various engineering plastics.

A nanosensor would resemble a smart material, involving a small component within a larger machine that would react to its environment and change in some fundamental, intentional way. As a very simple example: a photosensor could passively measure the incident light and discharge its absorbed energy as electricity when the light passes above or below a specified threshold, sending a signal to a larger machine. Such a sensor would cost less and use less power than a conventional sensor, and yet function usefully in all the same applications — for example, turning on parking lot lights when it gets dark.

While smart materials and nanosensors both exemplify useful applications of nanotechnology, they pale in comparison with the complexity of the technology most popularly associated with the term: the nanobot.













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