Detection Using Impulse Ground Penetrating Radar
Landmines are affecting the lives and livelihood of millions of people around
the world. The video impulse ground penetrating radar system for detection for
small and shallow buried objects has been developed. The hardware combines commercially
available components with components specially developed or modified for being
used in the system. The GPR system has been desired to measure accurately electromagnetic
field backscattered from subsurface targets in order to allow identification of
detected targets through the solution of the inverse scattering problem. The GPR
has been tested in different environmental conditions and has proved its ability
to detect small and shallow buried targets.
and unexploded ordnance (UXO) are a legacy of war, insurrection, and guerilla
activity. Landmines kill and maim approximately 26,000 people annually. In Cambodia,
whole areas of arable land cannot be farmed due to the threat of landmines. United
Nations relief operations are made more difficult and dangerous due to the mining
of roads. Current demining techniques are heavily reliant on metal detectors and
Technologies are used for landmine
· Metal detectors--- capable of finding even low-metal
content mines in mineralized soils.
· Nuclear magnetic resonance, fast
neutron activation and thermal neutron activation.
· Thermal imaging
and electro-optical sensors--- detect evidence of buried objects.
Biological sensors such as dogs, pigs, bees and birds.
· Chemical sensors
such as thermal fluorescence--- detect airborne and waterborne presence of explosive
In this seminar, we will concentrate
on Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). This ultra wide band radar provides centimeter
resolution to locate even small targets. There are two distinct types of GPR,
time-domain and frequency domain. Time domain or impulse GPR transmits discrete
pulses of nanosecond duration and digitizes the returns at GHz sample rates. Frequency
domain GPR systems transmit single frequencies either uniquely, as a series of
frequency steps, or as a chirp. The amplitude and phase of the return signal is
measured. The resulting data is converted to the time domain. GPR operates by
detecting the dielectric contrasts in the soils, which allows it to locate even
In this discussion we
deal with buried anti-tank (AT) and anti-personnel (AP) landmines, which require
close approach or contact to activate.
AT mines range from about 15 to 35 cm in
size. They are typically buried up to 40cm deep, but they can also be deployed
on the surface of a road to block a column of machinery. AP mines range from about
5 to 15cm in size. AT mines, which are designed to impede, the progress of destroy
vehicles and AP mines which are designed to kill and maim people.
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