cache based data access in ad hoc networks
Wireless ad hoc network is a collection of autonomous nodes or
terminals that communicate with each other by forming a multihop
radio network and maintaining connectivity in a decentralized
manner. Since the nodes communicate over wireless links, they
have to contend with the effects of radio communication, such
as noise, fading, and interference. In addition, the links typically
have less bandwidth than in a wired network. Each node in a wireless
ad hoc network functions as both a host and a router, and the
control of the network is distributed among the nodes. The network
topology is in general dynamic, because the connectivity among
the nodes may vary with time due to node departures, new node
arrivals, and the possibility of having mobile nodes. Hence, there
is a need for efficient routing protocols to allow the nodes to
communicate over multihop paths consisting of possibly several
links in a way that does not use any more of the network "resources"
TYPES OF AD
two major types of wireless ad hoc networks:
Ad hoc Networks
b) Smart Sensor Networks
Hoc Networks (MANETs)
In the next generation of wireless communication systems, there
will be a need for the rapid deployment of independent mobile
users. Significant examples include establishing survivable, efficient,
dynamic communication for emergency or rescue operations, disaster
relief efforts, and military networks. Such network scenarios
cannot rely on centralized and organized connectivity, and can
be conceived as applications of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. A MANET
is an autonomous collection of mobile users that communicate over
relatively bandwidth constrained wireless links. Since the nodes
are mobile, the network topology may change rapidly and unpredictably
over time. The network is decentralized, where all network activity
including discovering the topology and delivering messages must
be executed by the nodes themselves, i.e., routing functionality
will be incorporated into mobile nodes.
Figure 1. Cellular Network vs. Ad Hoc Network
The set of
applications for MANETs is diverse, ranging from small, static
networks that are constrained by power sources, to large-scale,
mobile, highly dynamic networks. The design of network protocols
for these networks is a complex issue. Regardless of the application,
MANETs need efficient distributed algorithms to determine network
organization, link scheduling, and routing. However, determining
viable routing paths and delivering messages in a decentralized
environment where network topology fluctuates is not a well defined
problem. While the shortest path (based on a given cost function)
from a source to a destination in a static network is usually
the optimal route, this idea is not easily extended to MANETs.
Factors such as variable wireless link quality, propagation path
loss, fading, multiuser interference, power expended, and topological
changes, become relevant issues.
The network should be able to
adaptively alter the routing paths to alleviate any of these effects.
Moreover, in a military environment, preservation of security,
latency, reliability, intentional jamming, and recovery from failure
are significant concerns. Military networks are designed to maintain
a low probability of intercept and/or a low probability of detection.
Hence, nodes prefer to radiate as little power as necessary and
transmit as infrequently as possible, thus decreasing the probability
of detection or interception. A lapse in any of these requirements
may degrade the performance and dependability of the network.
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