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How you can immigrate to Canada, how to protect yourself from fraud and what to expect after you arrive in Canada. You (and some minors, if applicable) must have been physically in Canada for at least 1,095 days (3 years) during the 5 years before the date you sign your application.


To become a Canadian citizen, you must

  • be a permanent resident
  • have lived in Canada for 3 out of the last 5 years
  • have filed your taxes, if you need to
  • prove your language skills
  • pass a citizenship test
  • take the oath of citizenship

There are additional or different requirements if you are:

  • applying for a minor (under age 18)
  • a Canadian applying for your adopted child born outside Canada
  • a current or former Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) member applying under the fast-track process
  • a past Canadian citizen who want your Canadian citizenship back (including current and former CAF members)
Advance Declaration: Access the ArriveCAN app and create your account -

Spouses of Canadian citizens

You don’t automatically become a citizen when you marry a Canadian.

If you’re the spouse of a Canadian citizen, you must meet the same requirements listed above (no exception).

Children and grandchildren of Canadian citizens

If you have a Canadian parent or grandparent, you may be a Canadian citizen.

  • See if you may be a Canadian citizen
  • To find out for sure, apply for a Canadian citizenship certificate

Permanent resident status

Regardless of your age, if you’re applying for citizenship, you must have permanent resident (PR) status in Canada.

This means you must not:

  • be under review for immigration or fraud reasons
  • be asked by Canadian officials to leave Canada (removal order)
  • have unfulfilled conditions related to your PR status, for example: medical screening

Before applying for citizenship, you should review the documents you received when you became a permanent resident to make sure you’re eligible.

You don’t need a valid PR card to apply for citizenship. You can apply with an expired PR card.

Language skills

If you’re between 18 and 54 years old on the day you sign your application, you must show that you have an adequate knowledge of English or French. This means you can

  • take part in short, everyday conversations about common topics
  • understand simple instructions, questions and directions
  • use basic grammar, including simple structures and tenses
  • show you know enough common words and phrases to answer questions and express yourself

Pass a citizenship test

If you’re between 18 and 54 years old on the day you sign your application, you must take the citizenship test. We’ll invite you to the test after you submit your application.

Test questions and passing score

The test

  • will ask questions about
    • the rights and responsibilities of Canadian citizens
    • Canada’s history, geography, economy, government, laws and symbols
  • has 20 questions that are either
    • multiple choice or
    • true or false
  • is in English or French
  • is 30 minutes long

You need to get at least 15 out of 20 questions right to pass the test.