A solar cell, sometimes called a photovoltaic cell, is a device that converts light energy into electrical energy. A single solar cell creates a very small amount of energy (about .6 volts DC) so they are usually grouped together in an integrated electrical panel called a solar panel. Sunlight is a somewhat diffuse form of energy and only a portion of the light captured by a solar cell is converted into electricity When the sun rays fall on the solar cell in some particular direction then only we get maximum output .The output of solar cells depends on the intensity of sunlight and the angle of incidence. To get the maximum output the solar panels must remain in front of sun during the whole day. Hence the solar cells are rotated in the direction of sun’s position where we get maximum efficiency; the solar cell captures the sun’s rays and gives the analog output to the ADC.
Sunlight is made up of packets of energy called photons. When the photons strike the semi-conductor layer (usually silicon) of a solar cell a portion of the photons are absorbed by the material rather than bouncing off of it or going through the material.
When a photon is absorbed the energy of that photon is transferred to an electron in an atom of the cell causing the electron to escape from its normal position. This creates, in essence, a hole in the atom. This hole will attract another electron from a nearby atom now creating yet another whole, which in turn is again filled by an electron from another atom. This hole filling process is repeated a few zillion times and voila, an electric current is formed.
Solar Tracking System:
• The PIC controller receives analog input from panel.
• The maximum voltage which can be obtained from solar cell is set as reference voltage in micro controller.
• The Panel output voltage and current is compared with the reference voltage and current accordingly controller gives signal to the stepper motor.
• If the output of ADC is equal to the reference voltage then stepper motor keeps the solar panel in same direction.
• And if output is less than reference voltage then stepper motor keeps rotating the solar panel till we get the voltage equal to the reference voltage
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