Sensors on 3D Digitization
Published on Jul 03, 2020
Digital 3D imaging can benefit from advances in VLSI technology in order to accelerate its deployment in many fields like visual communication and industrial automation. High-resolution 3D images can be acquired using laser-based vision systems.
With this approach, the 3D information becomes relatively insensitive to background illumination and surface texture. Complete images of visible surfaces that are rather featureless to the human eye or a video camera can be generated. Intelligent digitizers will be capable of measuring accurately and simultaneously colour and 3D.
Colour 3D Imaging Technology
Machine vision involves the analysis of the properties of the luminous flux reflected or radiated by objects. To recover the geometrical structures of these objects, either to recognize or to measure their dimension, two basic vision strategies are available .
Passive vision, attempts to analyze the structure of the scene under ambient light.  Stereoscopic vision is a passive optical technique. The basic idea is that two or more digital images are taken from known locations. The images are then processed to find the correlations between them. As soon as matching points are identified, the geometry can be computed.
Active vision attempts to reduce the ambiguity of scene analysis by structuring the way in which images are formed. Sensors that capitalize on active vision can resolve most of the ambiguities found with two-dimensional imaging systems. Lidar based or triangulation based laser range cameras are examples of active vision technique. One digital 3D imaging system based on optical triangulation were developed and demonstrated.
Sensors For 3D Imaging
The sensors used in the autosynchronized scanner include
1. Synchronization Circuit Based Upon Dual Photocells
This sensor ensures the stability and the repeatability of range measurements in environment with varying temperature. Discrete implementations of the so-called synchronization circuits have posed many problems in the past. A monolithic version of an improved circuit has been built to alleviate those problems. 
2. Laser Spot Position Measurement Sensors
High-resolution 3D images can be acquired using laser-based vision systems. With this approach, the 3D information becomes relatively insensitive to background illumination and surface texture. Complete images of visible surfaces that are rather featureless to the human eye or a video camera can be generated.
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