Published on Jan 07, 2020
Looking back in to the history of rockets and guided missiles, we find that rockets were used in China and India around 1000AD for fire works as well as other purposes. During the 18th Century, unguided rockets propelled missiles were used by 'Hyber Ali' and his son 'Tippu Sulthan' against the British.
The current phase in the history of missiles began during the Second World War with the use of V1 and V2 missiles by the Germany. Since then there has been a rapid growth in this field because of technological development.
Types Of Guided Missiles
Presently there are many types of guided missiles. They can be broadly classified on the basis of their features such as type of target, method of launching, range, launch platform, propulsion or guidance and tye of trajectory.
On the basis of target they are classified as Antitank/ Antiarmour, Antipersonnel, Antiaircraft, Antiship/ Antisubmarine, Antisatallites or Antimissiles.Another classification of missiles which depends upon the method of launching. They are surface- to- surface Missiles [ SSM], Surface-to-Air Missiles [SAM], Air -to-Air Missiles [AAM] and Air- to- Surface Missiles. Surface- to - Surface Missiles are common Ground-to-Ground ones.
Although these may be launched from a ship to another ship. Under water weapons, which are launched from a submarine, also come under this classification.Surface-to-Air Missiles ar3 essential complaint of modern air defence systems along with Antiaircraft guns which are used against hostile aircrafts. Air-to-air Missiles are for air born battle among fighter or bomber aircraft. These are usually mounted under the wings of the aircraft and are fired against the target. The computer and radar networks control these missiles.
On the basis of range, missiles can be broadly classified as short range missiles, medium range missiles, intermediate range missiles and long range missiles. These classifications is mainly used in the care of SSM missiles which travel a distance of about a distance of about 50 to 100 km. Are designated as short range missiles. Those with a range of 100 to 1500 km. Are called medium range missiles and missiles having a range up to 5000 km. Are said to be intermediate- range missiles. Missiles, which travel a distance of 12000 km, are called long-range missiles.
On the basis of launch platform missiles can be termed as shoulder fired, Land/ Mobile fired, Aircraft/ Helicopter borne, Ship/ submarine- launched.
Based on guidance, missiles are broadly classified as command guider missiles, Homing guidance, Beam rider guidance, inertial navigation guidance and stellar guidance.One more classification is based on the type of trajectory and a missile is called as a ballistic missile or a cruise missile.
By definition ballistic missile is the one, which covered a major part of its range outside the atmosphere where the only external force active on the missile is the gravitational force of earth, while the cruise is the one, which travels its entire range within the atmosphere at aim nearly constant height and speed.Another classification based on the propulsion system provided in the missile. So they are classified solid propulsion systems, liquid propulsion systems and hybrid propulsion systems.
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