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Published on Apr 02, 2024


M-Voting (An alternate of e-voting):

Mobile technology has attained heights and the market trend is that every citizens of India will possess a mobile handset by the year 2010 (at cheaper rates of service.) When such a PDA is available why not using it for a time saving, cost effective, secured method of voting.

The concept is as follows:

¢ Every citizen above the age of 18 years has got the right to vote and hence obtaining their fingerprints and storing in the database along with their birth/death record becomes necessary.

¢ User sends his finger print (secured print is encrypted and sent as sequence of data in encoded form) to the service provider.

¢ Service provider verifies the fingerprint and checks for the validity of voting and sends voter list (a mobile ballot paper) through SMS.

¢ User casts his vote and sends 2nd message.

Since mobile phone has connectivity with computer systems it is easy to store and access at the service provider and results be published instantly.

Finger print sensor:

The FingerLoc sensor is a monolithic silicon chip comprising a sensing array and its associated circuitry, all covered by a fairly thick (75 micro metre) proprietary coating. It can be easily embedded in the surface of a cell phone, where the robust coating will protect it from the rigors of normal usage. FingerLoc' key advantage over other (optical) fingerprint sensors, is that it ignores the external fingerprint in a buried layer of living cells, where fingerprints are created, and where they are found in pristine condition.

What it does is apply a low-voltage ac signal to the fingertip and then measure how the resulting electric field varies in amplitude over the fingertip surface.The signal is applied by means of a conductive epoxy ring surrounding the sensor area. It is defined and measured with respect to a reference plane within the chip.The electric field is set up between the reference plane and a thin layer of highly conductive saline liquid that resides at the interface of the living skin tissue and the dead skin. The saline layer has same shape as the living tissue- the shape of the fingerprint. Being highly conductive, it imposes its shape as a boundary condition on the field, thereby spatially modulating the field into an analog of the fingerprint.

An array of tiny antenna arranged in a square matrix of 96 rows and columns does the actual sensing. Located above the reference plane, the array measures about 6.5mm on a side, giving the sensor a linear resolution of about 15 pixels per millimeter.The sensed analog electric field values are scanned from the sensor matrix a row at a time, digitized, and sent from the FingerLoc chip to the cell phone's microprocessor for further processing.In the cell phone, a module from a special software suite analyzes the fingerprint pattern and extracts information from it, which it converts into a unique representation of the fingerprint owner's. To register a voter, that representation, called a template, is stored in nonvolatile memory and in storage of Service Provider for instance VSNL for future use.

What happens next depends on how the cell phone manufacturer and service provider have set things up. If the handset does not recognize the applicant, service will be denied. It gets more interesting when the system does recognize the fingerprint, because each user can have a stored profile, which personalizes the phone for him or her.

Finger Loc Sensor



When the use of mobile phones rises to unprecedented heights, it gave birth to the new technology of short message service. Also known as text messages, Short Message System as a type of mobile service allows the sending of short messages between mobile phones and even allows interacting with automated systems. After a few years of the widespread use of SMS in Europe and Asia, mobile phone service providers in the United States of America started to interconnect their networks for text messaging, thus allowing subscribers on different networks to exchange text messages by the month of November, year 2001.

The United States overcame unique challenges in combining networks running different technologies, and enabled truly open text messaging possible across all networks. These instances gave birth to a profoundly simple form of mobile marketing via text message or short message service. Text messaging is a text-only message delivery system on mobile phone networks. Text messages travel through the wireless service provider’s network, like that of a voice call. The use of mobile phones through texting is now considered as wonderful a part of the innovative world of mobile marketing.

SMS or Short Message Service is an essential tool in mobile marketing. SMS Message Marketing contributes a lot to the innovation of the mobile world. SMS Message Marketing connects companies to their customers in a fast and easy way. The process of this type of mobile marketing ensures the delivery of the message, since a short message service center is responsible for the storage and delivery of the message to its destination. To be specific, through the SMS center, a user sends a text message (SMS message) to another user, and the message gets stored in the SMS center, which delivers it to the destination user when they are available. In addition, if the customer’s/recipient’s mobile phone is turned off or is out of range, the message will be delivered at the next opportunity.

SMS Message Marketing offers a wide variety of mobile services. In fact, it is widely used for promotions, campaigns, voting, polling, surveys, and many more. SMS Message Marketing is also considered as a two-way communication, cost effective, instant, direct, fast, and effective as it is usually targeted to a particular age, gender or even profession. SMS Message Marketing is also an essential tool in building a desirable relationship between the companies or businesses and the customers, in such a way that the responses of the customers are taken into consideration while the companies or businesses can gain feedbacks on how to improve their products as well as ideas about the preferences of their customers. A mobile originated message, inherently, requires the express consent of the customer to receive future communications. In addition to this, the customers initiate the communication by responding to the businesses’ text message or SMS.

SMS Message Marketing is, indeed, a great tool in the field of marketing. It has proven to be a helpful tool in the world of mobile industry. In addition to this, SMS Message Marketing is used by a number of various entities, like party promoters and personal relations firms, companies that want to talk with their customers, marketing agencies as a bonus campaign feature, and retailers who want to attract their customers.

SMS Message Marketing features a variety of requested services such as voting in contests, favorite television shows or radios; sweepstakes; text polls and surveys; chats and fan clubs forum; product data and/or information; text dating or match-making; text coupons and/or discounts; games of single-player or multi-player; sports information, news and/or weather reports; recipes and menus; donations; and requested services to customized mobile phones with logos, wallpapers, ring tones, music and many more. These requested services are made possible by sending the mobile short codes through the use of text messaging.

The SMS Message Marketing also allows a one to one marketing ability by sending alert messages and notifications with a double opt-in subscription service, and thus saves time and money by helping businesses or companies target an audience more efficiently. In addition to this, SMS Message Marketing provides a real-time interaction between the businesses and the customers; therefore it keeps the conversation ongoing.

SMS Message Marketing has been helpful in the field of advertising, commerce, entertainment, and marketing. Nowadays, SMS Message Marketing is widely used as a voting tool for television shows. In fact, through the recent addition of Cingular-powered SMS voting on the television program American Idol, SMS Message Marketing has started to be introduced into the United States.

SMS Message Marketing makes it easy for businesses to reach the customers in real-time wherever they are. With SMS Message Marketing, it makes it easy for companies to aim for their specific customers. Customers, in return, would experience a convenient way of great access to their favorite mobile contests, coupons, voting, donations, news reports, weather forecasts, sports news, and their desired mobile services. SMS Message Marketing opens a wide opportunity of interactive experience the interactive way of life. SMS Message Marketing is a successful product of a fast-growing modern technology. One can enjoy the advantages of SMS Message Marketing anytime and anywhere. SMS Message Marketing is a two-way advantage to the customers as well as the companies or businesses.

Through the years, SMS Message Marketing has become considered as a successful form of mobile marketing. Aside from keeping people in touch, SMS Message Marketing makes it possible to continue the growth of marketing through sheer text messaging. People from different countries will carry on enjoying the benefits that SMS Message Marketing provides as companies continue to develop their business. SMS Message Marketing makes life more exciting, lively, fun, entertaining and happy. Additionally, one can send messages to participate in polls, voting, games and a variety of other exciting mobile applications by addressing the SMS or text message to a short code.


M-Voting Process Chart



 Cost effective i.e. no need for dedicated voting machines, which are vulnerable and used once in five years.

 User-friendly easy access for citizens.

 Most secure voting ever.

 Fake votes easily avoided.

 Time consumption is very less.

 My vote goes mobile.


 Service provider needs to be governmental organization.

 Service provider must have high-speed equipments.

 Citizens should contact correct SMS number in order to avoid false voting.

 Presently non-availability of sensors in Mobile Phones.

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