The primary role of the capital market is to raise long-term funds for governments, banks, and corporations while providing a platform for the trading of securities. This fundraising is regulated by the performance of the stock and bond markets within the capital market. The member organizations of the capital market may issue stocks and bonds in order to raise funds. Investors can then invest in the capital market by purchasing those stocks and bonds.
The capital market, however, is not without risk. It is important for investors to understand market trends before fully investing in the capital market. To that end, there are various market indices available to investors that reflect the present performance of the market.
Every capital market in the world is monitored by financial regulators and their respective governance organization. The purpose of such regulation is to protect investors from fraud and deception. Financial regulatory bodies are also charged with minimizing financial losses, issuing licenses to financial service providers, and enforcing applicable laws.Capital market investment is no longer confined to the boundaries of a single nation.
Today’s corporations and individuals are able, under some regulation, to invest in the capital market of any country in the world. Investment in foreign capital markets has caused substantial enhancement to the business of international trade.The capital market is also dependent on two sub-markets – the primary market and the secondary market. The primary market deals with newly issued securities and is responsible for generating new long-term capital. The secondary market handles the trading of previously-issued securities, and must remain highly liquid in nature because most of the securities are sold by investors. A capital market with high liquidity and high transparency is predicated upon a secondary market with the same qualities.
Objectives of the Study
This report is based on primary as well secondary data, however primary data collection was given more importance since it is overhearing factor in attitude studies. One of the most important users of research methodology is that it helps in identifying the problem, collecting, analyzing the required information data and providing an alternative solution to the problem .It also helps in collecting the vital information that is required by the top management to assist them for the better decision making both day to day decision and critical ones.
Research is totally based on primary data. Secondary data can be used only for the reference. Research has been done by primary data collection, and primary data has been collected by interacting with various people. The secondary data has been collected through various journals and websites.
The sample was selected of them who are the customers/visitors of State Bank if India, irrespective of them being investors or not or availing the services or not. It was also collected through personal visits to persons, by formal and informal talks and through filling up the questionnaire prepared. The data has been analyzed by using mathematical/Statistical tool.
The sample size of my project is limited to 200 people only. Out of which only 120 people had invested in Mutual Fund. Other 60 people did not have invested in Mutual Fund.
Data has been presented with the help of bar graph, pie charts, line graphs etc.
In Ludhiana in the Age Group of 36-40 years were more in numbers. The second most Investors were in the age group
of 41-45 years and the least were in the age group of below30 years.
In Ludhiana most of the Investors were Graduate or Post Graduate and below HSC there were very few in numbers.
In Occupation group most of the Investors were Govt. employees, the second most Investors were Private employees and the least were associated with Agriculture.
In family Income group, between Rs. 20,001- 30,000 were more in numbers, the second most were in the Income group of more than Rs.30,000 and the least were in the group of below Rs. 10,000.
About all the Respondents had a Saving A/c in Bank, 76% Invested in Fixed Deposits, Only 60% Respondents invested in Mutual fund.
Mostly Respondents preferred High Return while investment, the second most preferred Low Risk then liquidity and the least preferred Trust.
Only 67% Respondents were aware about Mutual fund and its operations and 33% were not.
Among 200 Respondents only 60% had invested in Mutual Fund and 40% did not have invested in Mutual fund.
Out of 80 Respondents 81% were not aware of Mutual Fund, 13% told there is not any specific reason for not invested in Mutual Fund and 6% told there is likely to be higher risk in Mutual Fund.
60% Investors preferred to Invest through Financial Advisors, 25% through AMC (means Direct Investment) and 15% through Bank.
The most preferred Portfolio was Equity, the second most was Balance (mixture of both equity and debt), and the least preferred Portfolio was Debt portfolio.
Most of the Investors did not want to invest in Sectoral Fund, only 21% wanted to invest in Sectoral Fund.
Running a successful Mutual Fund requires complete understanding of the peculiarities of the Indian Stock Market and also the psyche of the small investors. This study has made an attempt to understand the financial behavior o Mutual Fund investors in connection with the preferences of Brand (AMC), Products, Channels etc. I observed that many of people have fear of Mutual Fund. They think their money will not be secure in Mutual Fund. They need the knowledge of Mutual Fund and its related terms. Many of people do not have invested in mutual fund due to lack of awareness although they have money to invest. As the awareness and income is growing the number of mutual fund investors are also growing.
“Brand” plays important role for the investment. People invest in those Companies where they have faith or they are well known with them. There are many AMCs in Punjab but only some are performing well due to Brand awareness. Some AMCs are not performing well although some of the schemes of them are giving good return because of not awareness about Brand.
Distribution channels are also important for the investment in mutual fund. Financial Advisors are the most preferred channel for the investment in mutual fund. They can change investors’ mind from one investment option to others. Many of investors directly invest their money through AMC because they do not have to pay entry load. Only those people invest directly who know well about mutual fund and its operations and those have time