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Mobile WiMax

PostPosted: Fri Oct 11, 2013 7:17 pm
by Prasanth
1.1 Introduction

Broadband wireless sits at the confluence of two of the most remarkable growth stories of the telecommunications industry in recent years. Both wireless and broadband have on their own enjoyed rapid mass-market adoption. Wireless mobile services grew from 11 million subscribers worldwide in 1990 to more than 2 billion in 2005 [4]. During the same period, the Internet grew from being a curious academic tool to having about a billion users.

This staggering growth of the Internet is driving demand for higher-speed Internet-access services, leading to a parallel growth in broadband adoption. In less than a decade, broadband subscription worldwide has grown from virtually zero to over 200 million [5]. Will combining the convenience of wireless with the rich performance of broadband be the next frontier for growth in the industry? Can such a combination be technically and commercially viable? Can wireless deliver broadband applications and services that are of interest to the end-users? Many industry observers believe so. Before we delve into broadband wireless, let us review the state of broadband access today. Digital subscriber line (DSL) technology, which delivers broadband over twisted-pair telephone wires, and cable modem technology, which delivers over coaxial cable TV plant, is the predominant mass-market broadband access technologies today.

Both of these technologies typically provide up to a few megabits per second of data to each user, and continuing advances are making several tens of megabits per second possible. Since their initial deployment in the late 1990s, these services have enjoyed considerable growth. The United States has more than 50 million broadband subscribers, including more than half of home Internet users. Worldwide, this number is more than 200 million today and is projected to grow to more than 400 million by 2010 [5]. The availability of a wireless solution for broadband could potentially accelerate this growth. What are the applications that drive this growth? Broadband users worldwide are finding that it dramatically changes how we share information, conduct business, and seek entertainment. Broadband access not only provides faster Web surfing and quicker file downloads but also enables several
multimedia applications, such as real-time audio and video streaming, multimedia conferencing, and interactive gaming. Broadband connections are also being used for voice telephony using voice-over-Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology.

More advanced broadband access systems, such as fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) and very high data rate digital subscriber loop (VDSL), enable such applications as entertainment-quality video, including high-definition TV (HDTV) and video on demand (VoD). As the broadband market continues to grow, several new applications are likely to emerge, and it is difficult to predict which ones will succeed in the future.

So what is broadband wireless? Broadband wireless is about bringing the broadband experience to a wireless context, which offers users certain unique benefits and convenience. There are two fundamentally different types of broadband wireless services. The first type attempts to provide a set of services similar to that of the traditional fixed-line broadband but using wireless as the medium of transmission. This type, called fixed wireless broadband, can be thought of as a competitive alternative to DSL or cable modem. The second type of broadband wireless, called mobile broadband, offers the additional functionality of portability, nomadicity,1 and mobility.

WiMax is supported by the industry itself, including Intel, Dell, Motorola, Fujitsu, AT&T, British Telecom, France Telecom, Reliance Infocomm, Siemens, Sify,Price Warehouse Coopers and Tata Teleservices – forming an alliance called WiMax Forum. It represents the next generation of wireless networking [3]. WiMAX original release the 802.16standard addressed applications in licensed bands in the 10 to 66 GHz frequency range. Subsequent amendments have extended the 802.16 air interface standard to cover non-line of sight (NLOS) applications in licensed and unlicensed bands in the sub 11 GHz frequency range.

Filling the gap between Wireless LANs and wide area networks, WiMAX-compliant systems will provide a cost-effective fixed wireless alternative to conventional wire-line DSL and cable in areas where those technologies are readily available. And more importantly the WiMAX technology can provide a cost-effective broadband access solution in areas beyond the reach of DSL and cable. The ongoing evolution of IEEE 802.16 will expand the standard to address mobile applications thus enabling broadband access directly to WiMAX-enabled portable devices ranging from smart phones and Pads to notebook and laptop computers.