Thermo acoustic have been known for over years but the use of this phenomenon to develop engines and pumps is fairly recent. Thermo acoustic refrigeration is one such phenomenon that uses high intensity sound waves in a pressurized gas tube to pump heat from one place to other to produce refrigeration effect. In this type of refrigeration all sorts of conventional refrigerants are eliminated and sound waves take their place. All we need is a loud speaker and an acoustically insulated tube. Also this system completely eliminates the need for lubricants and results in 40% less energy consumption. Thermo acoustic heat engines have the advantage of operating with inert gases and with little or no moving parts, making them highly efficient ideal candidate for environmentally-safe refrigeration with almost zero maintenance cost. Now we will look into a thermo acoustic refrigerator, its principle and functions
Acoustic or sound waves can be utilized to produce cooling. The pressure variations in the acoustic wave are accompanied by temperature variations due to compressions and expansions of the gas. For a single medium, the average temperature at a certain location does not change. When a second medium is present in the form of a solid wall, heat is exchanged with the wall. An expanded gas parcel will take heat from the wall, while a compressed parcel will reject heat to the wall.
As expansion and compression in an acoustic wave are inherently associated with a displacement, a net transport of heat results. To fix the direction of heat flow, a standing wave pattern is generated in an acoustic resonator. The reverse effect also exists: when a large enough temperature gradient is imposed to the wall, net heat is absorbed and an acoustic wave is generated, so that heat is converted to work.
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