The Global Positioning System, usually called GPS (the US military refers to it as NAVSTAR), is an intermediate circular orbit (ICO) satellite navigation system used for determining one's precise location and providing a highly accurate time reference almost anywhere on Earth or in Earth orbit.Tags : GPS seminar report, GPS pdf, GPS ppt, Global Positioning System Technology report
The first of 24 satellites that form the current GPS constellation (Block II) was placed into orbit on February 14, 1989. The 50th GPS satellite since the beginning in 1978 was launched March 21, 2004 aboard a Delta II rocket
GPS was designed as a system of radio navigation that utilizes "ranging" -- the measurement of distances to several satellites -- for determining location on ground, sea, or in the air. The system basically works by using radio frequencies for the broadcast of satellite positions and time. With an antenna and receiver a user can access these radio signals and process the information contained within to determine the "range", or distance, to the satellites. Such distances represent the radius of an imaginary sphere surrounding each satellite. With four or more known satellite positions the users' processor can determine a single intersection of these spheres and thus the positions of the receiver . The system is generally comprised of three segments:
1. The space segment
2. The control segment
3. The user segment
The GPS space segment uses a total of 24 satellites in a constellation of six orbiting planes. This configuration provides for at least four equally- spaced satellites within each of the six orbital planes. The orbital path is continuous in relation to the earth, meaning that a satellite's orbit will follow the same path on the earth with each orbit. At 10,900nm (20,200km) GPS satellites are able to complete one orbit around the earth every 12 hours. GPS satellites orbit at a 55-degree inclination to the equatorial plane. This space segment configuration provides for a minimum of 5 satellites to be in view from any place on earth, fulfilling the necessary four needed for three-dimensional positioning
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