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Non Visible Imaging


Published on Dec 06, 2015

Abstract

Near infrared light consists of light just beyond visible red light (wavelengths greater than 780nm). Contrary to popular thought, near infrared photography does not allow the recording of thermal radiation (heat). Far-infrared thermal imaging requires more specialized equipment. Infrared images exhibit a few distinct effects that give them an exotic, antique look.

Plant life looks completely white because it reflects almost all infrared light (because of this effect, infrared photography is commonly used in aerial photography to analyze crop yields, pest control, etc.) The sky is a stark black because no infrared light is scattered. Human skin looks pale and ghostly. Dark sunglasses all but disappear in infrared because they don't block any infrared light, and it's said that you can capture the near infrared emissions of a common iron.

Infrared photography has been around for at least 70 years, but until recently has not been easily accessible to those not versed in traditional photographic processes. Since the charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used in digital cameras and camcorders are sensitive to near-infrared light, they can be used to capture infrared photos. With a filter that blocks out all visible light (also frequently called a "cold mirror" filter), most modern digital cameras and camcorders can capture photographs in infrared. In addition, they have LCD screens, which can be used to preview the resulting image in real-time, a tool unavailable in traditional photography without using filters that allow some visible (red) light through.

INTRODUCTION

Near infrared light consists of light just beyond visible red light (wavelengths greater than 780nm). Contrary to popular thought, near infrared photography does not allow the recording of thermal radiation (heat). Far-infrared thermal imaging requires more specialized equipment. Infrared images exhibit a few distinct effects that give them an exotic, antique look. Plant life looks completely white because it reflects almost all infrared light (because of this effect, infrared photography is commonly used in aerial photography to analyze crop yields, pest control, etc.)

The sky is a stark black because no infrared light is scattered. Human skin looks pale and ghostly. Dark sunglasses all but disappear in infrared because they don't block any infrared light, and it's said that you can capture the near infrared emissions of a common iron

Near-infrared (1000 - 3000 nm) spectrometry, which employs an external light source for determination of chemical composition, has been previously utilized for industrial determination of the fat content of commercial meat products, for in vivo determination of body fat, and in our laboratories for determination of lipoprotein composition in carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques. Near-infrared (IR) spectrometry has been used industrially for several years to determine saturation of unsaturated fatty acid esters (1). Near-IR spectrometry uses an tunable light source external to the experimental subject to determine its chemical composition.

Industrial utilization of near-IR will allow for the in vivo measurement of the tissue-specific rate of oxygen utilization as an indirect estimate of energy expenditure. However, assessment of regional oxygen consumption by these methods is complex, requiring a high level of surgical skill for implantation of indwelling catheters to isolate the organ under study.

A major advantage of near-IR spectral analysis is its chemical imaging ability. Additionally, near-IR spectral imaging provides information on details of various internal structures including muscle, bone, and arteries (14). Using a specially modified infrared (IR) video camera, different band pass filters permit the measurement of temperature (+ 0.03 C) by black body heat emission (IR analysis) or by collection of image spectra over the range of 1000 - 4000 nm (near-IR and IR spectral range). In contrast to near-IR imaging spectrometry, which requires an external light source, infrared imaging is based on internally generated heat radiated as light. Measurements can be made quickly on conscious, freely moving animals placed in a thermoneutral environment.

Theoretically, the use of an IR video camera modified to work in the near-IR range should allow for spatially resolved noninvasive measurements of surface temperature (as an index of energy expenditure) and superficial lipid composition (as an index of lipid metabolism) (6). The purpose of this study was to determine if near-IR spectrometry and infrared imaging of rats could be used to noninvasively examine regional subcutaneous lipid composition and surface energy expenditure, respectively.

In this study, prototype pharmacologic agents with known effects on thermogenesis were administered to rats to demonstrate the effectiveness of near-infrared and infrared techniques. Results from this study demonstrate that combined near-IR and IR imaging with a tunable-range video camera detected drug-induced alterations in superficial lipid composition and heat emission.

Near-infrared (NIR) radiation offers several potential advantages over existing radiological techniques. First, the radiation is non-ionizing, and therefore reasonable doses can be repeatedly employed without harm to the patient. Second, optical methods offer the potential to differentiate between soft tissues, due to their different absorption or scatter at NIR wavelengths, that are indistinguishable using other modalities. And third, specific absorption by natural chromophores (such as oxy-haemoglobin) allows functional information to be obtained. NIR imaging research has focused on a variety of possible clinical applications. Potentially the most important is the development of a means of screening for breast cancer, particularly if a specificity and sensitivity exceeding that of x-ray mammography can be achieved

HOW TO TAKE A NEAR INFRARED IMAGE ?

Introduction

Near infrared light consists of light just beyond visible red light (wavelengths greater than 780nm). Contrary to popular thought, near infrared photography does not allow the recording of thermal radiation (heat). Far-infrared thermal imaging requires more specialized equipment. Infrared images exhibit a few distinct effects that give them an exotic, antique look. Plant life looks completely white because it reflects almost all infrared light (because of this effect, infrared photography is commonly used in aerial photography to analyze crop yields, pest control, etc.) The sky is a stark black because no infrared light is scattered. Human skin looks pale and ghostly. Dark sunglasses all but disappear in infrared because they don't block any infrared light, and it's said that you can capture the near infrared emissions of a common iron.

Infrared photography has been around for at least 70 years, but until recently has not been easily accessible to those not versed in traditional photographic processes. Since the charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used in digital cameras and camcorders are sensitive to near-infrared light, they can be used to capture infrared photos. With a filter that blocks out all visible light (also frequently called a "cold mirror" filter), most modern digital cameras and camcorders can capture photographs in infrared. In addition, they have LCD screens, which can be used to preview the resulting image in real-time, a tool unavailable in traditional photography without using filters that allow some visible (red) light through.

The steps necessary to procure and manipulate near infrared photographs through the use of a digital camera (or camcorder). We need:

• a digital camera

• a Kodak Wratten #89B, #88A, #87, #87B, or #87C filter

(in order of how much visible light they block, from low to high)

• a tripod

• a means to fasten the filter to your camera

• an image editing program such as Adobe Photoshop














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