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The invention of transistor enabled the first use of radiometry
capsules, which used simple circuits for the internal study of the
gastro-intestinal (GI)  tract. They couldn't be used as they
could transmit only from a single channel and also due to the size
of the components. They also suffered from poor reliability, low
sensitivity and short lifetimes of the devices. This led to the
application of single-channel telemetry capsules for the detection
of disease and abnormalities in the GI tract where restricted area
prevented the use of traditional endoscopy.
later modified as they had the disadvantage of using laboratory
type sensors such as the glass pH electrodes, resistance thermometers,
etc. They were also of very large size. The later modification
is similar to the above instrument but is smaller in size due
to the application of existing semiconductor fabrication technologies.
These technologies led to the formation of "MICROELECTRONIC
pill is basically a multichannel sensor used for remote biomedical
measurements using micro technology. This is used for the real-time
measurement parameters such as temperature, pH, conductivity and
dissolved oxygen. The sensors are fabricated using electron beam
and photolithographic pattern integration and were controlled
by an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC).
pill consists of 4 sensors (2) which are mounted on two silicon
chips (Chip 1 & 2), a control chip (5), a radio transmitter
(STD- type 1-7, type2-crystal type-10) & silver oxide batteries
1-access channel, 3-capsule, 4- rubber ring, 6-PCB chip carrier
basically 4 sensors mounted on two chips- Chip 1 & chip 2.
On chip 1(shown in fig 2 a), c), e)), temperature sensor silicon
diode (4), pH ISFET sensor (1) and dual electrode conductivity
sensor (3) are fabricated. Chip 2 comprises of three electrode
electrochemical cell oxygen sensor (2) and optional NiCr resistance
consisting of both temperature sensor & pH sensor platforms
were cut from the wafer & attached onto 100-µm- thick
glass cover slip cured on a hot plate. The plate acts as a temporary
carrier to assist handling of the device during level 1 of lithography
when the electric connections tracks, electrodes bonding pads
are defined. Bonding pads provide electrical contact to the external
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