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Energy Efficient Wireless Communication Network Design
Energy efficient wireless communication network design is an important
and challenging problem. It is important because mobile units
operate on batteries with energy supply. It is challenging because
there are many different issues that must be dealt with when designing
a low energy wireless communication system (such as amplifier
design, coding, and modulation design), and these issues are coupled
with one another. Furthermore, the design and operation of each
component of a wireless communication system present trade-offs
between performance and energy consumption. Therefore, the challenge
is to exploit the coupling among the various components of a wireless
communication system, and understand trade-offs between performance
and energy consumption in each individual component, in order
to come up with an overall integrated system design that has optimal
performance and achieves low energy (power). The key observation
is that constraining the energy of a node imposes a coupling among
the design layers that cannot be ignored in performing system
optimization. In addition, the coupling between layers requires
simulation in order to accurately determine the performance. The
purpose of this power is to present a methodology for the design,
simulation and optimization of wireless communication networks
for maximum performance with an energy constraint.
proceed, we illustrate, through simple examples, a couple of issues
that need to be addressed. To highlight the trade-offs between
performance and energy consumption at individual components, consider
the design and operation of an amplifier. The amplifier boosts
the power of the desired signal so that the antenna can radiate
sufficient power for reliable communications. However, typical
power amplifiers have maximum efficiency in converting DC power
into RF power when the amplifier is driven into saturation. In
this region of operation, the amplifier voltage transfer function
is nonlinear. Because of this non linearity, the amplifier generates
unwanted signals (so called intermodulation products) in the band
of the desired signal and in adjacent bands. When the amplifier
drive level is reduced significantly (large back off) the amplifier
voltage transfer characteristic becomes approximately linear.
In this case it does not generate intermodulation products. However,
with large back off the amplifier is not able to efficiently convert
DC power into RF power. Thus, there is considerable wasting of
power at low drive levels, but at high drive levels more interfering
signal are generated.
the coupling among the design of individual components of a wireless
system, consider packet routing in a wireless network that contain
no base station (i.e. an ad hoc network). For simplicity consider
a network with nodes A, B and C shown in figure. If Node A wants
to transmit a message to Node C, it has two options. Transmit
with power sufficient to reach Node C in a single transmission,
or transmit first from A to B with smaller power, and then B to
C. since the received signal power typically decays with distance
as d4, there is significantly smaller power loss due to propagation
in the second option because d^4ac>d^4ab+d^4bc.however even
though Node A transmits with smaller output power, it does not
necessarily proportionally decreases the amount of actually consumed
because of the amplifier's effect discussed above.
besides the energy required for packet transmission, there are
energy requirements for packet reception and information decoding.
The probability of packet error reception that is achieved depends
on energy allocated to the receiver. Consequently, there is a
coupling among amplifier design, coding and modulation design,
and decoding design as well as routing protocol.
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