Power Electronics Module
In power electronics, solid-state electronics is used for the control and conversion
of electric power .The goal of power electronics is to realize power conversion
from electrical source to an electrical load in a highly efficient, highly reliable
and cost effective way. Power electronics modules are key units in a power electronics
system. These modules contain integration of power switches and associated electronic
circuitry for drive control and protection and other passive components.
the past decades, power devices underwent generation-by-generation improvements
and can now handle significant power density. On the other hand power electronics
packaging has not kept pace with the development of semiconductor devices. This
is due to the limitations of power electronics circuits. The integration of power
electronics circuit is quite different from that of other electronics circuits.
The objective of power electronics circuits is electronics energy processing and
hence require high power handling capability and proper thermal management.
of the currently used power electronic modules are made by using wire-bonding
technology [1,2]. In these packages power semi conductor dies are mounted on a
common substrate and interconnected with wire bonds. Other associated electronic
circuitries are mounted on a multi layer PCB and connected to the power devices
by vertical pins. These wire bonds are prone to resistance, parasitic and fatigue
failure. Due to its two dimensional structure the package has large size. Another
disadvantage is the ringing produced by parasitic associated with the wire bonds.
improve the performance and reliability of power electronics packages, wire bonds
must be replaced. The researches in power electronic packaging have resulted in
the development of an advanced packaging technique that can replace wire bonds.
This new generation package is termed as 'Integrated Power Electronics Module'
(IPEM) . In this, planar metalization is used instead of conventional wire
bonds. It uses a three-dimensional integration technique that can provide low
profile high-density systems. It offers high frequency operation and improved
performance. It also reduces the size, weight and cost of the power modules.
The basic structure of an IPEM
contains power semi conductor devices, control/drive/protection electronics and
passive components. Power devices and their drive and protection circuit is called
the active IPEM and the remaining part is called passive IPEM. The drive and protection
circuits are realized in the form of hybrid integrated circuit and packaged together
with power devices. Passive components include inductors, capacitors, transformers
The commonly used power switching devices
are MOSFETs and IGBTs . This is mainly due to their high frequency operation
and low on time losses. Another advantage is their inherent vertical structure
in which the metalization electrode pads are on two sides.
Usually the gate source
pads are on the top surface with non-solderable thin film metal Al contact. The
drain metalization using Ag or Au is deposited on the bottom of chip and is solderable.
This vertical structure of power chips offers advantage to build sand witch type
3-D integration constructions.
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