paper explores the various techniques used to authenticate the visual data recorded
by the automatic video surveillance system. Automatic video surveillance systems
are used for continuous and effective monitoring and reliable control of remote
and dangerous sites. Some practical issues must be taken in to account, in order
to take full advantage of the potentiality of VS system. The validity of visual
data acquired, processed and possibly stored by the VS system, as a proof in front
of a court of law is one of such issues. But visual data can be modified using
sophisticated processing tools without leaving any visible trace of the modification.
So digital or image data have
no value as legal proof, since doubt would always exist that they had been intentionally
tampered with to incriminate or exculpate the defendant. Besides, the video data
can be created artificially by computerized techniques such as morphing. Therefore
the true origin of the data must be indicated to use them as legal proof. By data
authentication we mean here a procedure capable of ensuring that data have not
been tampered with and of indicating their true origin.
Visual Surveillance System
Surveillance system is a self monitoring system which consists of a video camera
unit, central unit and transmission networks A pool of digital cameras is in charge
of frame the scene of interest and sent corresponding video sequence to central
unit. The central unit is in charge of analyzing the sequence and generating an
alarm whenever a suspicious situation is detected.
unit also transmits the video sequences to an intervention centre such as security
service provider, the police department or a security guard unit. Somewhere in
the system the video sequence or some part of it may be stored and when needed
the stored sequence can be used as a proof in front of court of law. If the stored
digital video sequences have to be legally credible, some means must be envisaged
to detect content tampering and reliably trace back to the data origin
Authentication techniques are
performed on visual data to indicate that the data is not a forgery; they should
not damage visual quality of the video data. At the same time, these techniques
must indicate the malicious modifications include removal or insertion of certain
frames, change of faces of individual, time and background etc. Only a properly
authenticated video data has got the value as legal proof. There are two major
techniques for authenticating video data.
are as follows
1. Cryptographic Data
It is a straight forward way to provide video authentication,
namely through the joint use of asymmetric key encryption and the digital Hash
Cameras calculate a digital summary
(digest) of the video by means of hash function. Then they encrypt the digest
with their private key, thus obtaining a signed digest which is transmitted to
the central unit together with acquired sequences. This digest is used to prove
data integrity or to trace back to their origin. Signed digest can only read by
using public key of the camera.
Watermarking data authentication is the modern
approach to authenticate visual data by imperceptibly embedding a digital watermark
signal on the data.
Digital watermarking is the art and science of embedding
copyright information in the original files. The information embedded is called
'watermarks '. Digital watermarks are difficult to remove without noticeably degrading
the content and are a covert means in situation where copyright fails to provide
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