Definition of Blue Eyes
Imagine yourself in a world where humans interact
with computers. You are sitting in front of your personal computer that can listen,
talk, or even scream aloud. It has the ability to gather information about you
and interact with you through special techniques like facial recognition, speech
recognition, etc. It can even understand your emotions at the touch of the mouse.
It verifies your identity, feels your presents, and starts interacting with you
.You ask the computer to dial to your friend at his office. It realizes the urgency
of the situation through the mouse, dials your friend at his office, and establishes
depends primarily on the ability to perceive, interpret, and integrate audio-visuals
and sensoring information. Adding extraordinary perceptual abilities to computers
would enable computers to work together with human beings as intimate partners.
Researchers are attempting to add more capabilities to computers that will allow
them to interact like humans, recognize human presents, talk, listen, or even
guess their feelings.
The BLUE EYES technology aims at creating computational
machines that have perceptual and sensory ability like those of human beings.
It uses non-obtrusige sensing method, employing most modern video cameras and
microphones to identifies the users actions through the use of imparted sensory
abilities . The machine can understand what a user wants, where he is looking
at, and even realize his physical or emotional states.
basic idea behind Blue Eyes technology is to give the computer the human power. We
all have some perceptual abilities. That is we can understand each others feelings.
For example we can understand ones emotional state by analyzing his facial expression.
If we add these perceptual abilities of human to computers would enable computers
to work together with human beings as intimate partners. The "BLUE EYES"
technology aims at creating computational machines that have perceptual and sensory
ability like those of human beings.
Theory of Blue Eyes
Based on Paul Ekman's facial expression work, we
see a correlation between a person's emotional state and a person's physiological
measurements. Selected works from Ekman and others on measuring facial behaviors
describe Ekman's Facial Action Coding System (Ekman and Rosenberg, 1997). One
of his experiments involved participants attached to devices to record certain
measurements including pulse, galvanic skin response (GSR), temperature, somatic
movement and blood pressure. He then recorded the measurements as the participants
were instructed to mimic facial expressions which corresponded to the six basic
emotions. He defined the six basic emotions as anger, fear, sadness, disgust,
joy and surprise. From this work, Dryer (1993) determined how physiological measures
could be used to distinguish various emotional states.
participants were trained to exhibit the facial expressions of the six basic emotions.
While each participant exhibited these expressions, the physiological changes
associated with affect were assessed. The measures taken were GSR, heart rate,
skin temperature and general somatic activity (GSA). These data were then subject
to two analyses. For the first analysis, a multidimensional scaling (MDS) procedure
was used to determine the dimensionality of the data. This analysis suggested
that the physiological similarities and dissimilarities of the six emotional states
fit within a four dimensional model. For the second analysis, a discriminant function
analysis was used to determine the mathematic functions that would distinguish
the six emotional states. This analysis suggested that all four physiological
variables made significant, nonredundant contributions to the functions that distinguish
the six states.
Moreover, these analyses indicate that these four physiological
measures are sufficient to determine reliably a person's specific emotional state.
Because of our need to incorporate these measurements into a small, non-intrusive
form, we will explore taking these measurements from the hand. The amount of conductivity
of the skin is best taken from the fingers. However, the other measures may not
be as obvious or robust. We hypothesize that changes in the temperature of the
finger are reliable for prediction of emotion. We also hypothesize the GSA can
be measured by change in movement in the computer mouse. Our efforts to develop
a robust pulse meter are not discussed here.
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