Computing In India
We all know that the silicon based chips are
reaching a physical limit in processing speed, as they are constrained by the
speed of electricity, light and certain thermodynamic laws. A viable solution
to overcome this limitation is to connect multiple processors working in coordination
with each other to solve grand challenge problems. Hence, high performance computing
requires the use of Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) systems containing thousands
of power full CPUs.
of multiple tasks simultaneously on multiple processors is called Parallel Processing.
The parallel program consists of multiple active processes simultaneously solving
a given problem. A given task is divided into multiple sub tasks using divide-and-conquer
technique and each one of them are processed on different CPUs. Programming on
multiprocessor system using divide-and-conquer technique is called Parallel Processing.
The development of parallel processing is being influenced by many factors. The
prominent among them include the following:
requirements are ever increasing, both in the area of scientific and business
computing. The technical computing problems, which require high-speed computational
power, are related to life sciences, aerospace, geographical information systems,
mechanical design and analysis, etc.
2.Sequential architectures reaching physical
limitation, as they are constrained by the speed of light and thermodynamics laws.
Speed with which sequential CPUs can operate is reaching saturation point ( no
more vertical growth ), and hence an alternative way to get high computational
speed is to connect multiple CPUs ( opportunity for horizontal growth ).
improvements in pipelining, super scalar, etc, are non scalable and requires sophisticated
compiler technology. Developing such compiler technology is difficult task.
processing works well for certain kind of problems. It is suitable for only scientific
problems ( involving lots of matrix operations). It is not useful to other areas
such as database.
5.The technology of parallel
processing is mature and can be exploited commercially, there is already significant
research and development work on development tools and environment is achieved.
development in networking technology is paving a way for heterogeneous computing.
India launched a major initiative in parallel computing in 1988. There are
five or six independent projects to construct parallel processing systems. This
was motivated by the need for advanced computing, a vision of developing its own
technology, and difficulties (political and economic) obtaining commercial products.
The creation of the Center for Development
of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) and concurrently other efforts at National Aerospace
Laboratory (NAL), Bangalore, Advanced Numerical Research & Analysis Group
(ANURAG), Hyderabad, Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC), Bombay, Center for
Development of Telematics (C-DOT), Bangalore, marked the beginning of high performance
computing in India.
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