Project Topics

Engineering Projects


In this project it is proposed an efficient method to create three dimensional [3D] Maps for personal digital assistant. In this project its developed a 3D Map. Using this map the user will get a quick understanding about the campus structure and buildings. Similar manner 3D maps can be drawn to larger area that covers a city or state.

The objective of this project is to render a 3D map with some enhanced properties like Book marking, Illustrative and non photorealistic visualization alternatives, etc. In rendering static scenes we define a potentially visible set – a list of atomic objects or regions as seen from a viewpoint or a view cell. In dynamic entity management the real world’s dynamic entities are moving objects, such as GPS-tracked users, public transportation, bicycles or other vehicles.

In modern cities buildings effectively limit any movement to urban canyons – namely, streets and sidewalks. In location based information we consider the fixed entities like buildings, ground etc… to create location based information. Visibilities have been predetermined. If the target is visible, so is the information associated with it. We use audio to assist the user to follow the map.

3D Maps

Computer generated perspective views, such a Lake shown in Figure 2.1, are often simply referred to as “3D maps”. Although this term is not found in the cartographic literature, there are specific reasons why it should be used. “3D”, because we perceive the presented landscape with our human perception system in a three-dimensional perspective way, even when the landscape is depicted on two dimensional media.

And, “maps”, because these products integrate and display spatially -arranged phenomena on the surface of a DTM [Digital Terrain Model] in accordance with cartographic symbolization and generalization conventions. Nevertheless, although they possess cartographic characteristics, 3D maps should be considered a map-related representation, not a map in the classic sense.


Advanced 3D Maps


Design Process

Before analysing the many graphic cues and resources that influence the look of 3D maps, we should first examine the design process. By doing so, we will have a better understanding of how to apply these cues and resources in the design of 3D maps. We will also understand how they affect overall representation, and how they interact effectively with other graphic cues and resources.


Schematic design processes for 3D maps


The first step of the design process is data modeling. The original data are analyzed, and, depending on the circumstances, converted to another format and file structure, upon which subsequent 3D map design processes depend. The geometric and semantic aspects of the objects in the data are reshaped, aggregated, and/or classified in the format required with the specific software used for designing and producing 3D maps.

Symbolization is the next step. This step involves determining the graphic appearance of the DTM section as well as topographic and thematic objects. In other words, we define the legend for the 3D map. It must be noted that a physical image has not yet been created at this stage of the design process. The last step is visualization. Parameters are chosen for creating the image and completing the scenery that will become the final 3D map.

General Considerations about Graphic Aspects

For generating 3D maps, there are a great number of input cues that influence the map creation process (Kraak 1988). Taken together these cues are known as "graphic aspects" (or "design aspects"). The different kinds of maps and map creation steps require many graphic aspects to be distinguished by cartographers. Graphic aspects are groups of parameters that exert different effects on the arrangement or appearance of the objects within the map. With them, it is possible to design and control all map features, including how features should appear in the perspective view.

Every graphic aspect includes one or more graphic variables. A starting point for understanding graphic variables is Bertin's "visual variables" for graphics and maps (Bertin 1998). For this discussion, however, it is necessary to enlarge Bertin's list to include sub variables within variables. A graphic variable is a design factor, which directly affects a focused map object in a one-dimensional way. Similar to the design process of 3D maps, all graphic aspects need to be divided into similar groups. But before doing this we will first examine the different object types, followed by an examination of their graphic aspects.

Highlights of the Project

This project provides 3D Map for a campus. This is installed in the server and can be instantly downloaded to the client using FTP. Also the user can walk through the 3D Map and can get clear idea about the place. Thus its believed that this project will provide a 3D Map with high degree of user friendliness, realistic representation, multiple views of an area, more degrees of freedom in movement.

System Specification

The hardware and software requirements for the development phase of our project are:

Software Requirements :

• Visual C++

• Google sketch up pro

• Windows NT family

• 64-bit operating systems

Hardware Requirements :

• 1 GB RAM

• 40 GB Hard Disk

• 2.8 GHz

• 56X CD ROM Drive

• 1.44MB Floppy Disk

• VGA monitor