recent years, the line between hardware and software has blurred.
Hardware engineers create the bulk of their new digital circuitry
in programming languages such as VHDL and Verilog and often target
it to CPLDs and FPGAs. What are these devices and how are they changing
the way embedded systems are designed? This article will help you
make sense of programmable logic. These programmable devices will
suffer quite damages during its operation in the outer space due
to the radiation effects. But these devices where needed for the
efficient operation of the programmable devices. So in this paper
we will discuss various techniques to reduce the radiation effects.
In the last part of this paper we will discuss one of the important
application of the FPGA in the satellites
2. OVER VIEW
A quiet revolution is taking place. Over the past few years, the
density of the average programmable logic device has begun to skyrocket.
The maximum number of gates in an FPGA is currently around 500,000
and doubling every 18 months. Meanwhile, the price of these chips
is dropping. What all of this means is that the price of an individual
NAND or NOR is rapidly approaching zero! And the designers of embedded
systems are taking note. Some system designers are buying processor
cores and incorporating them into system-on-a-chip designs; others
are eliminating the processor and software altogether, choosing
an alternative hardware-only design.
As this trend continues, it becomes more difficult to separate hardware
from software. After all, both hardware and software designers are
now describing logic in high-level terms, albeit in different languages,
and downloading the compiled result to a piece of silicon. Surely
no one would claim that language choice alone marks a real distinction
between the two fields. Turing's notion of machine-level equivalence
and the existence of language-to-language translators have long
ago taught us all that that kind of reasoning is foolish. There
are even now products that allow designers to create their hardware
designs in traditional programming languages like C. So language
differences alone are not enough of a distinction.
and software designs are compiled from a human-readable form into
a machine-readable one. And both designs are ultimately loaded into
some piece of silicon. Does it matter that one chip is a memory
device and the other a piece of programmable logic? If not, how
else can we distinguish hardware from software?
I'm not convinced that an unambiguous distinction between hardware
and software can ever be found, but I don't think that matters all
that much. Regardless of where the line is drawn, there will continue
to be engineers like you and me who cross the boundary in our work.
So rather than try to nail down a precise boundary between hardware
and software design, we must assume that there will be overlap in
the two fields. And we must all learn about new things. Hardware
designers must learn how to write better programs, and software
developers must learn how to utilize programmable logic.
3. TYPES OF
Many types of programmable logic are available. The current range
of offerings includes everything from small devices capable of implementing
only a handful of logic equations to huge FPGAs that can hold an
entire processor core (plus peripherals!). In addition to this incredible
difference in size there is also much variation in architecture.
In this section, I'll introduce you to the most common types of
programmable logic and highlight the most important features of
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